George J. Smith

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1. The potential of ketoconazole and sulphaphenazole to inhibit specific P450 enzyme activities (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9/8, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, 3A and 4A) was investigated using human liver microsomes. 2. Ketoconazole demonstrated an inhibitory effect on cyclosporine oxidase and testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylase activities, with mean IC50's of 0.19 and 0.22 microM(More)
1. The metabolism of granisetron was investigated in human liver microsomes to identify the specific forms of cytochrome P450 responsible. 2. 7-hydroxy and 9'-desmethyl granisetron were identified as the major products of metabolism following incubation of granisetron with human liver microsomes. At low, clinically relevant, concentrations of granisetron(More)
Of three enzymes encoded by HIV–reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase—only the first two have been exploited clinically as inhibitor targets. Efforts to develop inhibitors of purified integrase protein have yielded many compounds, but none with clinical utility. A different source of integration activity for studies in vitro is provided by(More)
BACKGROUND The immunostaining features of the androgen receptor (AR) have been studied in prostate cancer (CaP) to predict the outcome of androgen deprivation therapies. We have developed an automatic video color image analysis system for quantitation of AR expression in large samples of prostatic nuclei. METHODS Essential criteria of immunostaining have(More)
Sodium butyrate acts as a differentiation-promoting agent for a wide variety of cell types, including some tumor cell lines. In this study, we examined the effects of sodium butyrate (SB) on the functional differentiation of cultured WB-F344 rat liver epithelial stemlike cells. Treatment of WB-F344 cells with 3.75 mM SB resulted in an inhibition of cellular(More)
Integrins are adhesion receptors thought to be important in the process of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. Unlike other integrins, which attach a cell to extracellular matrix molecules, the alpha6beta4 integrin participates in the formation of hemidesmosomes, attaching epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Investigations of the alpha6beta4(More)
(E)-(S)-4-((S)-2-{3-[(5-methyl-isoxazole-3-carbonyl)-amino]-2-oxo-2H-pyridin-1-yl}-pent-4-ynoylamino)-5-((S)-2-oxo-pyrrolidin-3-yl)-pent-2-enoic acid ethyl ester (Compound 1) is a novel, irreversible inhibitor of human rhinovirus (HRV) 3C protease {inactivation rate constant (Kobs/[I]) of 223,000 M-1s-1}. In cell-based assays, Compound 1 was active against(More)
Human rhinovirus (HRV) infections are usually self-limited but may be associated with serious consequences, particularly in those with asthma and chronic respiratory disease. Effective antiviral agents are needed for preventing and treating HRV illnesses. Ruprintrivir (Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., San Diego, Calif.) selectively inhibits HRV 3C protease(More)
Neoplastically transformed rat liver epithelial cell lines (GN6TF and GP7TB), which form tumors with short latency at s.c. or i.p. transplantation sites of syngeneic rats, did not form tumors or were weakly tumorigenic following transplantation into the livers of young adult rats and expressed increasing tumorigenicity in livers of increasingly aged rats.(More)
Morphologic transformation and tumorigenicity are separate cellular phenotypes in transformed 10T1/2 cells. We have investigated the levels of expression of genes for c-myc, c-H-ras, c-K-ras, c-N-ras, TGF beta and Rb in 42 morphologically transformed 10T1/2 cell lines, in an attempt to define the molecular mechanisms governing morphologic transformation and(More)