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The inherent joint laxity and muscle hypotonia of adults with Down syndrome (DS) may result in reduced gait stability and increased energetic cost. These factors vary as a function of walking speed and may be reflected in gait patterns. The present study therefore examined whether the three-dimensional motion of the body center of mass (COM) and stepping(More)
The distribution of histamine in the nervous system of the marine molluscs Aplysia californica and Pleurobranchaea californica was studied by using a newly available immunohistochemical localization technique and specific antiserum against histamine-protein conjugate. We examined several sets of complete histological sections through the major ganglia of(More)
Feeding behavior and the effect of its occurrence on other, unrelated behaviors were studied in the carnivorous marine gastropodPleurobranchaea calif arnica. The threshold of the feeding response is low and stable: it does not change in a circadian fashion (Fig. 1); it does not change during different behavioral states such as mating (Table 4) and(More)
1. Unrelated acts of behavior inPleurobranchaea are organized into a behavioral hierarchy (Fig. 1), in which feeding behavior takes precedence over righting behavior and over withdrawal of the head and oral veil from tactile stimulation. The present paper examines the effect on the behavioral hierarchy of one form of experience that affects feeding(More)
The findings presented here of work on the opisthobranch mollusc Pleurobranchaea californica indicate that some of the variability that has been observed in the activity of neurons during patterned motor activity may be attributable to low-dimensional chaos. We obtained long trains of action potentials (spikes) from these neurons, scanned them using(More)
For immunohistochemical demonstration of the enkephalin octapeptide Met5-enkephalin-Arg6-Gly7-Leu8, the peptide was conjugated with a carrier protein using either glutaraldehyde or 1-ethyl-3 (3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide as coupling agent. Antisera were raised in rabbits and their specificity was studied using the immunoblotting technique. The(More)
Naive specimens of the marine gastropod Pleurobranchaea withdraw from tactile stimulation of the oral veil and show feeding responses to food chemicals. Experimental subjects, trained by pairing touch (conditioned stimullus) with food chemicals (unconditioned stimulus), soon acquired a classically conditioned feeding response to touch alone. Control(More)