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BACKGROUND Imaging studies report that hippocampal volume is decreased in major depressive disorder (MDD). A cellular basis for reduced hippocampal volume in MDD has not been identified. METHODS Sections of right hippocampus were collected in 19 subjects with MDD and 21 normal control subjects. The density of pyramidal neurons, dentate granule cell(More)
Many structural brain abnormalities have been described in schizophrenia, consistent with a neurodevelopmental model for this disease. We report here a study of the cavum septum pellucidum (CSP) in schizophrenia compared to control groups, as well as the clinical correlates of this congenital anomaly in schizophrenia. We conducted a magnetic resonance(More)
A variety of studies have documented alterations in 5-HT1A receptor binding sites in the brain of subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD). The recently identified transcription factor, nuclear deformed epidermal autoregulatory factor (NUDR/Deaf-1) has been shown to function as a transcriptional modulator of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene. The present(More)
The novel transcriptional repressor protein, R1 (JPO2/CDCA7L/RAM2), inhibits monoamine oxidase A (MAO A) gene expression and influences cell proliferation and survival. MAO A is implicated in several neuropsychiatric illnesses and highly elevated in major depressive disorder (MDD); however, whether R1 is involved in these disorders is unknown. This study(More)
Disruptions of glutamatergic and noradrenergic signaling have been postulated to occur in depressive disorders. Glutamate provides excitatory input to the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC). In this study, the location of immunoreactivity against neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), an intracellular mediator of glutamate receptor activation, was examined(More)
Investigations of the molecular mechanisms underlying major depressive disorder (MDD) have been hampered by the complexity of brain tissue and sensitivity of gene expression profiling approaches. To address these issues, we used discrete microdissections of postmortem dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) (area 9) and an oligonucleotide (60mer) microarray(More)
BACKGROUND Reductions in glial density and enlargement of glial nuclei have been reported in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in mood disorders. In alcohol dependence, often comorbid with depression, it is unclear whether there are changes in the density and size of glial cells in the dlPFC. METHODS The packing density and size of Nissl-stained(More)
Neuroimaging consistently reveals smaller hippocampal volume in recurrent or chronic major depressive disorder (MDD). The underlying cellular correlates of the smaller volume are not clearly known. Postmortem tissues from 17 pairs of depressed and control subjects were obtained at autopsy, and informant-based retrospective psychiatric assessment was(More)
BACKGROUND Alcoholism is a major psychiatric condition at least partly associated with ethanol (EtOH)-induced cell damage. Although brain cell loss has been reported in subjects with alcoholism, the molecular mechanism is unclear. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) reportedly play a role in cellular dysfunction(More)
Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been linked to changes in function and activity of the hippocampus, one of the central limbic regions involved in regulation of emotions and mood. The exact cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying hippocampal plasticity in response to stress are yet to be fully characterized. In this study, we examined the genetic(More)