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Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitors are a new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV is a member of a family of serine peptidases that includes quiescent cell proline dipeptidase (QPP), DPP8, and DPP9; DPP-IV is a key regulator of incretin hormones, but the functions of other family members are unknown. To determine the importance of(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R)/glucagon receptor (GCGR) dual agonist peptide that reduces body weight in obese subjects through increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. The metabolic effects of OXM have been attributed primarily to GLP1R agonism. We examined whether a long acting(More)
OBJECTIVE Acute activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) by free fatty acids (FFAs) or synthetic GPR40 agonists enhances insulin secretion. However, it is still a matter of debate whether activation of GPR40 would be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, since chronic exposure to FFAs impairs islet function. We sought to evaluate the(More)
A novel series of beta-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent,(More)
Peptide agonists of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R) are rapidly gaining favor as antidiabetic agents, since in addition to increasing glucose-dependent insulin secretion, they also cause weight loss. Oxyntomodulin (OXM), a natural peptide with sequence homology to both glucagon and GLP-1, has glucose-lowering activity in rodents and(More)
The purpose of this study was twofold: (1) to analyze the cellular components of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid throughout the development of oleic-acid-induced lung injury in the rat and (2) to investigate the role of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the pathogenesis of this disease. Animals were killed and lavaged at various times after a single(More)
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity has been shown to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by prolonging and potentiating the actions of incretin hormones. This study is designed to determine the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on improving islet function in a mouse model of insulin resistance and insulin(More)
Systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of a screening lead led to the discovery of a series of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) as potent GPR40 agonists. Among them, compound C demonstrated an acute mechanism-based glucose-lowering in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in lean mice, while no effects were observed in GPR40 knock-out(More)
The ratio of GLP-1/glucagon receptor (GLP1R/GCGR) co-agonism that achieves maximal weight loss without evidence of hyperglycemia was determined in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice chronically treated with GLP1R/GCGR co-agonist peptides differing in their relative receptor agonism. Using glucagon-based peptides, a spectrum of receptor selectivity was achieved(More)
The distribution of laminin was studied during pulmonary fibrosis induced in rodents by bleomycin sulfate. Large accumulations of laminin associated with basement membranes were seen in thickened lung interstitial spaces by immunofluorescence microscopy, starting at 7 days (32-75% increases) and persisting through 28 days (66-79% increase). By electron(More)