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OBJECTIVE Acute activation of G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) by free fatty acids (FFAs) or synthetic GPR40 agonists enhances insulin secretion. However, it is still a matter of debate whether activation of GPR40 would be beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, since chronic exposure to FFAs impairs islet function. We sought to evaluate the(More)
OBJECTIVE Oxyntomodulin (OXM) is a glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP1R)/glucagon receptor (GCGR) dual agonist peptide that reduces body weight in obese subjects through increased energy expenditure and decreased energy intake. The metabolic effects of OXM have been attributed primarily to GLP1R agonism. We examined whether a long acting(More)
A novel series of beta-amino amides incorporating fused heterocycles, i.e., triazolopiperazines, were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. (2R)-4-Oxo-4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-5,6-dihydro[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a]pyrazin-7(8H)-yl]-1-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)butan-2-amine (1) is a potent,(More)
Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)-IV inhibitors are a new approach to the treatment of type 2 diabetes. DPP-IV is a member of a family of serine peptidases that includes quiescent cell proline dipeptidase (QPP), DPP8, and DPP9; DPP-IV is a key regulator of incretin hormones, but the functions of other family members are unknown. To determine the importance of(More)
Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity has been shown to improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes by prolonging and potentiating the actions of incretin hormones. This study is designed to determine the effects of the DPP-4 inhibitor sitagliptin on improving islet function in a mouse model of insulin resistance and insulin(More)
In our effort to discover DPP-4 inhibitors with added benefits over currently commercially available DPP-4 inhibitors, MK-3102 (omarigliptin), was identified as a potent and selective dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitor with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile amenable for once-weekly human dosing and selected as a clinical development candidate. This(More)
Systematic structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of a screening lead led to the discovery of a series of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) as potent GPR40 agonists. Among them, compound C demonstrated an acute mechanism-based glucose-lowering in an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) in lean mice, while no effects were observed in GPR40 knock-out(More)
The ratio of GLP-1/glucagon receptor (GLP1R/GCGR) co-agonism that achieves maximal weight loss without evidence of hyperglycemia was determined in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice chronically treated with GLP1R/GCGR co-agonist peptides differing in their relative receptor agonism. Using glucagon-based peptides, a spectrum of receptor selectivity was achieved(More)
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and oxyntomodulin (OXM) are peptide hormones secreted postprandially from the gut that stimulate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner. OXM activates both the GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) and the glucagon receptor (GCGR). It has been suggested that OXM acutely modulates glucose metabolism solely through GLP1R agonism.(More)
The design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a series of β-substituted 3-(4-aryloxyaryl)propanoic acid GPR40 agonists is described. Systematic replacement of the pendant aryloxy group led to identification of potent GPR40 agonists. In order to identify candidates suitable for in vivo validation of the target, serum shifted potency(More)