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The accuracy of a novel frameless stereotactic system was determined during 10 surgeries performed to resect brain tumors. An array of three charge-coupled device cameras tracked the locations of infrared light-emitting diodes on a hand-held stylus and on a reference frame attached to the patient's skull with a single bone screw. Patient-image registration(More)
We demonstrate the application of intraoperative real-time ultrasound sector scanning in two patients who had spinal tumors. The scans were obtained through a 4- to 5-cm deep, saline-filled operative field. Ultrasonography imaged the tumors, the relationships of the lesions to the spinal cords, and the normal internal structures of the cords themselves. The(More)
Thoracic disc herniation is uncommon. An incidence of 0.25 to 0.75 per cent of protruded disks are in the thoracic region. A peak incidence is noted in the fourth decade with 75 per cent of the protruded disks occurring below T8. Pain is the most common initial symptom, present in 57 per cent of the cases, followed by sensory disturbances and motor(More)
Dynamic intraoperative imaging of the spinal cord was done using a real-time ultrasound scanner. Prior to opening the dura mater the neurosurgeon is able to "explore" the intradural space and with a 7.5 MHz transducer visualize the normal spinal cord, including the central canal and the dentate ligaments. Anterior and posterior spinal arteries may be seen(More)
A frameless stereotactic device interfacing an electromagnetic three-dimensional (3-D) digitizer to a computer workstation is described. The patient-image coordinate transformation was found by retrospectively registering a digitizer-derived model of the patient's scalp with a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-derived model of the same surface. This procedure(More)
Intraoperative real-time ultrasound imaging in the neurosurgical operating room is most useful in localizing, characterizing, and guiding the instrumentation of lesions of the brain and spinal cord. In the future, more and more operative procedures will be done using intraoperative ultrasound guidance. The ultrasound scanner, as developed for neurosurgery,(More)
Late results of cervical disc surgery have been reported and statistically studied in 383 cases: 83% were lateral discs, 13% were central spondylosis discs, and 4% central soft discs. Central spondylosis occured at a higher spinal level, and caused cord compression with or without weakness of the hands, but no pain. A posterior approach was used in all(More)