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Photolysis of a caged Ca(2+) compound was used to characterize the dependence of cerebellar long-term synaptic depression (LTD) on postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Elevating [Ca(2+)](i) was sufficient to induce LTD without requiring any of the other signals produced by synaptic activity. A sigmoidal relationship between [Ca(2+)](i) and LTD(More)
The functions of synapsins were examined by characterizing the phenotype of mice in which all three synapsin genes were knocked out. Although these triple knock-out mice were viable and had normal brain anatomy, they exhibited a number of behavioral defects. Synaptic transmission was altered in cultured neurons from the hippocampus of knock-out mice. At(More)
We describe an engineered fluorescent optogenetic sensor, SuperClomeleon, that robustly detects inhibitory synaptic activity in single, cultured mouse neurons by reporting intracellular chloride changes produced by exogenous GABA or inhibitory synaptic activity. Using a cell-free protein engineering automation methodology that bypasses gene cloning, we(More)
Transient rises in the cytoplasmic concentration of calcium ions serve as second messenger signals that control many neuronal functions. Selective triggering of these functions is achieved through spatial localization of calcium signals. Several qualitatively different forms of local calcium signaling can be distinguished by the location of open calcium(More)
Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function and dysfunction. We used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express the H134R variant of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), under the control of cell type–specific promoter elements. We performed an extensive functional(More)
We constructed a novel optical indicator for chloride ions by fusing the chloride-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein with the chloride-insensitive cyan fluorescent protein. The ratio of FRET-dependent emission of these fluorophores varied in proportion to the concentration of Cl and was used to measure intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) in(More)
Rapid increases in Ca2+ concentration, produced by photolysis of caged Ca2+, triggered exocytosis in squid nerve terminals. This exocytosis was transient in nature, decaying with a time constant of approximately 30 ms. The decay could not be explained by a decline in presynaptic Ca2+ concentration, depletion of synaptic vesicles, or desensitization of(More)
Although synapsins are abundant synaptic vesicle proteins that are widely used as markers of presynaptic terminals, the mechanisms that target synapsins to presynaptic terminals have not been elucidated. We have addressed this question by imaging the targeting of green fluorescent protein-tagged synapsins in cultured hippocampal neurons. Whereas all(More)
Ischemic episodes in the CNS cause significant disturbances in neuronal ionic homeostasis. To directly measure changes in intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl-]i) during and after ischemia, we used Clomeleon, a novel ratiometric optical indicator for Cl-. Hippocampal slices from adult transgenic mice expressing Clomeleon in hippocampal neurons were(More)
Seizures induce excitatory shifts in the reversal potential for GABA(A)-receptor-mediated responses, which may contribute to the intractability of electro-encephalographic seizures and preclude the efficacy of widely used GABAergic anticonvulsants such as phenobarbital. We now report that, in intact hippocampi prepared from neonatal rats and transgenic mice(More)