George J. Augustine

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1. Digital imaging and photometry were used in conjunction with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, Fura-2, to examine intracellular Ca2+ signals produced by depolarization of single adrenal chromaffin cells. 2. Depolarization with a patch pipette produced radial gradients of Ca2+ within the cell, with Ca2+ concentration highest in the vicinity of the plasma(More)
A number of calcium buffers were examined for their ability to reduce evoked transmitter release when injected into the presynaptic terminal of the squid giant synapse. Injection of EGTA was virtually ineffective at reducing transmitter release, even at estimated intracellular concentrations up to 80 mM. Conversely, the buffer(More)
Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a light-gated, cation-selective ion channel isolated from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Here, we report the generation of transgenic mice that express a ChR2-YFP fusion protein in the CNS for in vivo activation and mapping of neural circuits. Using focal illumination of the cerebral cortex and olfactory bulb, we(More)
The second messenger inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) releases Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ stores by activating specific receptors on the membranes of these stores. In many cells, InsP3 is a global signalling molecule that liberates Ca2+ throughout the cytoplasm. However, in neurons the situation might be different, because synaptic activity may(More)
Optogenetic methods have emerged as powerful tools for dissecting neural circuit connectivity, function and dysfunction. We used a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgenic strategy to express the H134R variant of channelrhodopsin-2, ChR2(H134R), under the control of cell type–specific promoter elements. We performed an extensive functional(More)
One of the crucial issues in understanding neuronal transmission is to define the role(s) of the numerous proteins that are localized within presynaptic terminals and are thought to participate in the regulation of the synaptic vesicle life cycle. Synapsins are a multigene family of neuron-specific phosphoproteins and are the most abundant proteins on(More)
We constructed a novel optical indicator for chloride ions by fusing the chloride-sensitive yellow fluorescent protein with the chloride-insensitive cyan fluorescent protein. The ratio of FRET-dependent emission of these fluorophores varied in proportion to the concentration of Cl and was used to measure intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) in(More)
Recent work has established that different geometric arrangements of calcium channels are found at different presynaptic terminals, leading to a wide spectrum of calcium signals for triggering neurotransmitter release. These calcium signals are apparently transduced by synaptotagmins - calcium-binding proteins found in synaptic vesicles. New biochemical(More)
The functions of synapsins were examined by characterizing the phenotype of mice in which all three synapsin genes were knocked out. Although these triple knock-out mice were viable and had normal brain anatomy, they exhibited a number of behavioral defects. Synaptic transmission was altered in cultured neurons from the hippocampus of knock-out mice. At(More)