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This paper analyzes a Question & Answer site for programmers, Stack Overflow, that dramatically improves on the utility and performance of Q&A systems for technical domains. Over 92% of Stack Overflow questions about expert topics are answered - in a median time of 11 minutes. Using a mixed methods approach that combines statistical data analysis(More)
Information retrieval studies that involve searching the Internet or marking phrases usually lack a well-defined number of negative cases. This prevents the use of traditional interrater reliability metrics like the kappa statistic to assess the quality of expert-generated gold standards. Such studies often quantify system performance as precision, recall,(More)
Agreement measures are used frequently in reliability studies that involve categorical data. Simple measures like observed agreement and specific agreement can reveal a good deal about the sample. Chance-corrected agreement in the form of the kappa statistic is used frequently based on its correspondence to an intraclass correlation coefficient and the ease(More)
Temporal information is crucial in electronic medical records and biomedical information systems. Processing temporal information in medical narrative data is a very challenging area. It lies at the intersection of temporal representation and reasoning (TRR) in artificial intelligence and medical natural language processing (MLP). Some fundamental concepts(More)
BACKGROUND Patient-based similarity metrics are important case-based reasoning tools which may assist with research and patient care applications. Ontology and information content principles may be potentially helpful tools for similarity metric development. METHODS Patient cases from 1989 through 2003 from the Columbia University Medical Center data(More)
We present a method that extracts medication information from discharge summaries. The program relies on parsing rules written as a set of regular expressions and on a user-configurable drug lexicon. Our evaluation shows a precision of 94% and recall of 83% in the extraction of medication information. We use a broader definition of medication information(More)
CONTEXT Although patient safety is a major problem, most health care organizations rely on spontaneous reporting, which detects only a small minority of adverse events. As a result, problems with safety have remained hidden. Chart review can detect adverse events in research settings, but it is too expensive for routine use. Information technology(More)