George Heufelder

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Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO). Impaired antagonism of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1 by the naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) has been implicated in the initiation and perpetuation of various autoimmune diseases and may play a role in the evolution of GO. Cigarette(More)
The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1), and soluble interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (sIL-1RA) in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED) before and 1 and 3 months(More)
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