Learn More
We introduce a method for optically imaging intracellular proteins at nanometer spatial resolution. Numerous sparse subsets of photoactivatable fluorescent protein molecules were activated, localized (to approximately 2 to 25 nanometers), and then bleached. The aggregate position information from all subsets was then assembled into a superresolution image.(More)
We report a photoactivatable variant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) that, after intense irradiation with 413-nanometer light, increases fluorescence 100 times when excited by 488-nanometer light and remains stable for days under aerobic conditions. These characteristics offer a new tool for exploring intracellular protein dynamics(More)
We combined photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) with live-cell single-particle tracking to create a new method termed sptPALM. We created spatially resolved maps of single-molecule motions by imaging the membrane proteins Gag and VSVG, and obtained several orders of magnitude more trajectories per cell than traditional single-particle tracking(More)
The prevailing view of intra-Golgi transport is cisternal progression, which has a key prediction--that newly arrived cargo exhibits a lag or transit time before exiting the Golgi. Instead, we find that cargo molecules exit at an exponential rate proportional to their total Golgi abundance with no lag. Incoming cargo molecules rapidly mix with those already(More)
The reliance of modern microscopy techniques on photoactivatable fluorescent proteins prompted development of mCherry variants that are initially dark but become red fluorescent after violet-light irradiation. Using ensemble and single-molecule characteristics as selection criteria, we developed PAmCherry1 with excitation/emission maxima at 564/595 nm.(More)
The ability to visualize, track, and quantify molecules and events in living cells with high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for understanding biological systems. Only recently has it become feasible to carry out these tasks due to the advent of fluorescent protein technology. Here, we trace the development of highly visible and minimally(More)
We report a photoswitchable monomeric Orange (PSmOrange) protein that is initially orange (excitation, 548 nm; emission, 565 nm) but becomes far-red (excitation, 636 nm; emission, 662 nm) after irradiation with blue-green light. Compared to its parental orange proteins, PSmOrange has greater brightness, faster maturation, higher photoconversion contrast and(More)
GAD65, the smaller isoform of the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase, synthesizes GABA for fine-tuning of inhibitory neurotransmission. GAD65 is synthesized as a soluble hydrophilic protein but undergoes a hydrophobic post-translational modification and becomes anchored to the cytosolic face of Golgi membranes. A second hydrophobic modification,(More)
We describe the use of modified versions of the Aequora victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) to simultaneously follow the expression and distribution of two different proteins in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. A cyan-colored GFP derivative, designated CFP, contains amino acid (aa) substitutions Y66W, N146I, M153T and V163A relative to the(More)
Analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) and steady-state fluorescence anisotropy were used to measure the equilibrium dissociation constant (Kd) for formation of dimers by the amino-terminal domains (ATDs) of the GluA2 and GluA3 subtypes of AMPA receptor. Previous reports on GluA2 dimerization differed in their estimate of the monomer-dimer Kd by a 2,400-fold(More)