George Gallos

Learn More
The role of A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) in sepsis and inflammation is controversial. In this study, we determined the effects of A3AR modulation on mortality and hepatic and renal dysfunction in a murine model of sepsis. To induce sepsis, congenic A3AR knockout mice (A3AR KO) and wild-type control (A3AR WT) mice were subjected to cecal ligation and double(More)
Sepsis is a leading cause of multiorgan dysfunction and death in hospitalized patients. Dysregulated inflammatory processes and apoptosis contribute to the pathogenesis of sepsis-induced organ dysfunction and death. A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) activation reduces inflammation and apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Therefore, we questioned(More)
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component of the pathophysiology of asthma. Taurine, an agonist of glycine receptor chloride (GlyR Cl(-)) channels, was found to relax contracted ASM, which led us to question whether functional GlyR Cl(-) channels are expressed in ASM. Messenger RNA for β (GLRB), α1 (GLRA1), α2 (GLRA2), and α4 (GLRA4)(More)
GABA(A) channels are ubiquitously expressed on neuronal cells and act via an inward chloride current to hyperpolarize the cell membrane of mature neurons. Expression and function of GABA(A) channels on airway smooth muscle cells has been demonstrated in vitro. Airway smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization contributes to relaxation. We hypothesized(More)
The prevalence of asthma has taken on pandemic proportions. Since this disease predisposes patients to severe acute airway constriction, novel mechanisms capable of promoting airway smooth muscle relaxation would be clinically valuable. We have recently demonstrated that activation of endogenous airway smooth muscle GABA(A) receptors potentiates(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence indicates that an endogenous autocrine/paracrine system involving gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is present in airways. GABAA channels, GABAB receptors, and the enzyme that synthesizes GABA have been identified in airway epithelium and smooth muscle. However, the endogenous ligand itself, GABA, has not been measured in airway(More)
Neuropeptide tachykinins (substance P, neurokinin A, and neurokinin B) are present in peripheral terminals of sensory nerve fibers within the respiratory tract and cause airway contractile responses and hyperresponsiveness in humans and most mammalian species. Three subtypes of neurokinin receptors (NK1R, NK2R, and NK3R) classically couple to Gq(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma are characterized by hyperreactive airway responses that predispose patients to episodes of acute airway constriction. Recent studies suggest a complex paradigm of GABAergic signaling in airways that involves GABA-mediated relaxation of airway smooth muscle. However, the cellular source of airway GABA and(More)
Enhanced airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction is an important component in the pathophysiology of asthma. We have shown that ligand gated chloride channels modulate ASM contractile tone during the maintenance phase of an induced contraction, however the role of chloride flux in depolarization-induced contraction remains incompletely understood. To better(More)
Bronchodilators are the first line therapy during acute asthmatic exacerbations to reverse airway obstruction primarily by relaxing airway smooth muscle. Only three categories of bronchodilators exist in clinical practice: β-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, and methylxanthines. Each of these categories have specific drugs dating back to the early 20th(More)