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The rat estrogen receptor (ER) exists as two subtypes, ER␣ and ER␤, which differ in the C-terminal ligand binding domain and in the N-terminal transactivation domain. In this study we investigated the messenger RNA expression of both ER subtypes in rat tissues by RT-PCR and compared the ligand binding specificity of the ER subtypes. Saturation ligand(More)
Androgen receptor synthesis and modification were studied in the human LNCaP cell line. Immunoblotting with a specific polyclonal antibody showed that the androgen receptor migrated as a closely spaced 110-112 kDa doublet on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gels. Most of the receptor protein is present in the higher(More)
The recent discovery that an additional estrogen receptor subtype is present in various rat tissues has advanced our understanding of the mechanisms underlying estrogen signaling. Here we report on the cloning of the cDNA encoding the mouse homolog of estrogen receptor-␤ (ER␤) and the functional characterization of mouse ER␤ protein. ER␤ is shown to have(More)
The human prostate tumor cell line LNCaP contains an abnormal androgen receptor system with broad steroid binding specificity. Progestagens, estradiol and several antiandrogens compete with androgens for binding to the androgen receptor in the cells to a higher extent than in other androgen sensitive systems. Optimal growth of LNCaP cells is observed after(More)
Using specific cDNA hybridization probes, the first coding exon of the human androgen receptor gene was isolated from a genomic library. The exon contained an open reading frame of 1586 bp, encoding an androgen receptor amino-terminal region of 529 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was characterized by the presence of several poly-amino acid(More)
The growth of the majority of prostate tumors is androgen-dependent, for which the presence of a functional androgen receptor is a prerequisite. Tumor growth can be inhibited by blockade of androgen receptor action. However, this inhibition is transient. To study the role of the androgen receptor in androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate tumor(More)
All members of the steroid hormone receptor family are phosphoproteins. Additional phosphorylation occurs in the presence of hormone. This hormone-induced phosphorylation, which is 2- to 7-fold more than the basal phosphorylation, is a rapid process. All steroid receptors are phosphorylated at more than one single site. Most phosphorylation sites are(More)
The recently discovered estrogen receptor-␤ (ER␤) is expressed in rodent and human testes. To obtain insight in the physiological role of ER␤ we have investigated the cell type-specific expression pattern of ER␤ messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the testis of rats of various ages by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. In fetal testes of rats(More)
Discrete functions have been attributed to precise regions of the human androgen receptor (hAR) by expression of deletion mutants in COS and HeLa cells. A large C-terminal domain constitutes the hormone-binding region and a central basis, cysteine-rich domain is responsible for DNA binding. In addition, separate domains responsible for transactivation and(More)
Androgen receptor synthesis and modification were studied in the human LNCaP cell line. Immunoblotting showed that the androgen receptor migrated as a closely spaced 110-112 kDa doublet on SDS-PAGE gels. Most of the receptor protein is present in the higher molecular mass form. Labelling experiments with [35S]methionine showed that the androgen receptor is(More)