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Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion mutation in the androgen receptor (AR). We investigated whether the mutant protein alters mitochondrial function. We found that constitutive and doxycycline-induced expression of the mutant AR in MN-1 and PC12 cells, respectively, are associated with(More)
The microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein and its activator dynactin drive vesicular transport and mitotic spindle organization. Dynactin is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotes, but a G59S mutation in the p150Glued subunit of dynactin results in the specific degeneration of motor neurons. This mutation in the conserved cytoskeleton-associated protein,(More)
The use of Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)-based vectors to deliver therapeutic genes into target cells is limited by their inability to transduce nondividing cells. To test the capacity of HIV-based vectors to deliver genes into nondividing cells, we have generated replication-defective HIV type 1 (HIV-1) reporter vectors carrying neomycin(More)
Several mono-, di-, tetra-, penta- and nonaribozymes were developed. These multitarget-ribozymes were targeted to cleave HIV-1 env RNA at up to nine different conserved sites. Each multitarget-ribozyme consisted of a chain of up to nine hammerhead motifs, each flanked by a different targeting sequence. The multitarget-ribozymes were functional in vitro and(More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials of drugs that increase SMN protein levels in vitro are currently under way in patients with spinal muscular atrophy. OBJECTIVE To develop and validate measures of SMN mRNA and protein in peripheral blood and to establish baseline SMN levels in a cohort of controls, carriers, and patients of known genotype, which could be used to(More)
A consensus sequence of the polymerase (L) gene of vesicular stomatitis virus, derived from three genomic cDNA copies, is presented. This analysis completes the primary structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus genome, totaling 11,162 bases. The L gene alone spans 6,380 nucleotides and codes for a basic 2,109-amino-acid protein with a molecular weight of(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA, Kennedy's disease) is a motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine repeat expansion in the androgen receptor. Although degeneration occurs in the spinal cord and muscle, the exact mechanism is not clear. Induced pluripotent stem cells from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients provide a useful model for(More)
Androgens, like other steroid hormones, exert profound effects on cell growth and survival by modulating the expression of target genes. In vertebrates, androgens play a critical role downstream of the testis determination pathway, influencing the expression of sexually dimorphic traits. Among cells of the nervous system, motor neurons respond to trophic(More)
Kennedy's disease is a degenerative disease of motor neurons in which the causative mutation is expansion of a CAG/polyglutamine tract near the 5' end of the androgen receptor gene. The mutant protein misfolds, aggregates, and interacts abnormally with other proteins, leading to a novel, toxic gain of function and an alteration of normal function. We used a(More)
The protein kinase C gamma (PKCgamma) gene is mutated in spinocerebellar ataxia type 14 (SCA14). In this study, we investigated the effects of two SCA14 missense mutations, G118D and C150F, on PKCgamma function. We found that these mutations increase the intrinsic activity of PKCgamma. Direct visualization of labelled PKCgamma in living cells demonstrates(More)