George F. Smoot

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1. Abstract Anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) encode information about the evolution and development of the Universe. It is understood that quality observations of the CMB anisotropies can provide a very strong test of cosmological models and provide high precision measurements of major cosmological parameters. This paper provides a(More)
Fourier analysis and power spectrum estimation of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy on an incompletely sampled sky developed by Górski (1994) has been applied to the high-latitude portion of the 4-year COBE DMR 31.5, 53 and 90 GHz sky maps. Likelihood analysis using newly constructed Galaxy cuts (extended beyond |b| = 20 deg to excise the known(More)
We have searched the 1st-year WMAP W-Band CMB anisotropy map for evidence of cosmic strings. We have set a limit of δ = 8πGµ/c 2 < 8.2 × 10 −6 at 95% CL for statistical search for a significant number of strings in the map. We also have set a limit using the uniform distribution of strings model in the WMAP data with δ = 8πGµ/c 2 < 7.34 × 10 −5 at 95% CL.(More)
Inflation creates both scalar (density) and tensor (gravity wave) metric perturbations. We find that the tensor mode contribution to the CMB anisotropy on large-angular scales can only exceed that of the scalar mode in models where the spectrum of perturbations deviates significantly from scale invariance (e.g., extended and power-law inflation models and(More)
The Supernova / Acceleration Probe (SNAP) is a proposed space-based experiment designed to study the dark energy and alternative explanations of the acceleration of the Universe's expansion by performing a series of complementary systematics-controlled astrophysical measurements. We here describe a 1 self-consistent reference mission design that can(More)
We have developed a 33-GHz airborne radiometer system to map large angular scale variations in the temperature of the 3 K cosmic background radiation. A ferrite circulator switches a room-temperature mixer between two antennas pointing 60 degrees apart in the sky. In 40 min of observing, the radiometer can measure the anisotropy of the microwave background(More)
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has flown the COBE satellite to observe the Big Bang and the subsequent formation of galaxies and large-scale structure. Data from the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) show that the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background is that of a black body of temperature T = 2.73 +/- 0.06 K,(More)
We discuss MAXIPOL, a bolometric balloon-borne experiment designed to measure the E-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB). MAXIPOL is the first bolometric CMB experiment to observe the sky using rapid polarization modulation. To build MAXIPOL, the CMB temperature anisotropy experiment MAXIMA was retrofitted with a rotating(More)
For the last 100 years, General Relativity (GR) has taken over the gravitational theory mantle held by Newtonian Gravity for the previous 200 years. This article reviews the status of GR in terms of its self-consistency, completeness, and the evidence provided by observations, which have allowed GR to remain the champion of gravitational theories against(More)
Although the Planck Surveyor mission is optimized to map the cosmic microwave background anisotropies, it will also provide extremely valuable information on astrophysical phenomena. We review our present understanding of Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds relevant to the mission and discuss on one side, Planck's impact on the study of their properties(More)