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Prologue General relativity is a beautiful scheme for describing the gravitational field and the equations it obeys. Nowadays this theory is often used as a prototype for other, more intricate constructions to describe forces between elementary particles or other branches of fundamental physics. This is why in an introduction to general relativity it is of(More)
The aim of this set of lectures is a systematic presentation of a 1 + 3 covariant approach to studying the geometry, dynamics, and observational properties of relativistic cosmological models. In giving (i) the basic 1 + 3 covariant relations for a cosmological fluid, the present lectures cover some of the same ground as a previous set of Cargèse lectures(More)
We present a general framework for analyzing spatially inhomogeneous cosmological dynamics. It employs Hubble-normalized scale-invariant variables which are defined within the orthonormal frame formalism, and leads to the formulation of Einstein's field equations with a perfect fluid matter source as an autonomous system of evolution equations and(More)
It has been claimed that different types of causes must be considered in biological systems, including top-down as well as same-level and bottom-up causation, thus enabling the top levels to be causally efficacious in their own right. To clarify this issue, the important distinctions between information and signs are introduced here and the concepts of(More)
We study strong gravitational lensing due to a Schwarzschild black hole. Apart from the primary and the secondary images we find a sequence of images on both sides of the optic axis; we call them relativistic images. These images are formed due to large bending of light near r = 3M (the closest distance of approach r o is greater than 3M). The sources of(More)
Physics and chemistry underlie the nature of all the world around us, including human brains. Consequently some suggest that in causal terms, physics is all there is. However we live in an environment dominated by objects embodying the outcomes of intentional design (buildings, computers, teaspoons). The present-day subject of physics has nothing to say(More)
A large–scale smoothed–out model of the universe ignores small–scale inhomo-geneities, but the averaged effects of those inhomogeneities may alter both observational and dynamical relations at the larger scale. This article discusses these effects, and comments briefly on the relation to gravitational entropy. 1 Different scale descriptions: coarse–graining(More)
Based on studies in affective neuroscience and evolutionary psychiatry, a tentative new proposal is made here as to the nature and identification of primordial emotional systems. Our model stresses phylogenetic origins of emotional systems, which we believe is necessary for a full understanding of the functions of emotions and additionally suggests that(More)