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Phylogenetic relationships among the four major lineages of land plants (liverworts, mosses, hornworts, and vascular plants) remain vigorously contested; their resolution is essential to our understanding of the origin and early evolution of land plants. We analyzed three different complementary data sets: a multigene supermatrix, a genomic structural(More)
In this paper we present ACTUS2, the second version of ACTUS (Analysis of Contingency Tables Using Simulation). ACTUS2 has many new features, including analysis of data in which dependencies that make some combinations of properties impossible are hypothesized. Because ACTUS2 explicitly simulates such hypotheses, it can be used without loss of accuracy to(More)
We test the hypothesis that the choice by traditional people of species of plants for medicinal use does or does not depend on the families to which those species belong. Our geographic context is continental North America north of the Rio Grande River. Our plant context is flowering plants. Our ethnological context is Native American traditions. Our null(More)
Methods to estimate adult age from observations of skeletal elements are not very accurate and motivate the development of better methods. In this article, we test recently published method based on the acetabulum and Bayesian inference, developed using Coimbra collection (Portugal). In this study, to evaluate its utility in other populations, this(More)
The acetabular region is often present and adequately preserved in adult human skeletal remains. Close morphological examination of the 242 left male os coxae from the identified collection of Coimbra (Portugal) has enabled the recognition of seven variables that can be used to estimate age at death. This paper describes these variables and argues their(More)
As giestas (Cytisus spp.) são as plantas lenhosas dominantes em cerca de um quarto das areas montanhosas graníticas do interior, nomeadamente na Beira Alta (Portugal), onde durante os últimos 800 anos, o principal cereal cultivado era o centeio. Nessa altura, uma fracção substancial deste cereal era vendida e enviada para as cidades, para alimentar a(More)
The mass-specific metabolic rate hypothesis of Gillooly and others predicts that DNA mutation and substitution rates are a function of body mass and temperature. We tested this hypothesis with sequence divergences estimated from mtDNA cytochrome b sequences of 54 taxa of cyprinid fish. Branch lengths estimated from a likelihood tree were compared with(More)
Evolution provides many cases of apparent shifts in diversification associated with particular anatomical traits. Three general models connect these patterns to anatomical evolution: (i) elevated net extinction of taxa bearing particular traits, (ii) elevated net speciation of taxa bearing particular traits, and (iii) elevated evolvability expanding the(More)