George F. Cahill

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This article, which is partly biographical and partly scientific, summarizes a life in academic medicine. It relates my progress from benchside to bedside and then to academic and research administration, and concludes with the teaching of human biology to college undergraduates. My experience as an intern (anno 1953) treating a youngster in diabetic(More)
Catheterization of cerebral vessels in three obese patients undergoing 5-6 wk of starvation demonstrated that beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate replaced glucose as the predominant fuel for brain metabolism. A strikingly low respiratory quotient was also observed, suggesting a carboxylation mechanism as a means of disposing of some of the carbon of the(More)
Starvation entails a progressive selection of fat as body fuel. Soon after a meal glucose utilisation by muscle ceases and fatty acids are used instead. Ketoacid levels in blood become elevated over the first week, and the brain preferentially uses these instead of glucose. The net effect is to spare protein even further, as glucose utilisation by brain is(More)
Over 50 years ago, Benedict (2) published his extensive monograph on the metabolism of fasting in man, in which he demonstrated that carbohydrate stores provide a small but significant component of the body's fuel for only the first few days. Thereafter, protein and fat are the sole sources of fuel, the former contributing 15% of the calories and the latter(More)
Ketosis, meaning elevation of D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (R-3hydroxybutyrate) and acetoacetate, has been central to starving man's survival by providing nonglucose substrate to his evolutionarily hypertrophied brain, sparing muscle from destruction for glucose synthesis. Surprisingly, D-beta-hydroxybutyrate (abbreviated "betaOHB") may also provide a more(More)
This study quantifies the concentrations of circulating insulin, growth hormone, glucose, free fatty acids, glycerol, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, and alpha amino nitrogen in 11 obese subjects during prolonged starvation. The sites and estimated rates of gluconeogenesis and ketogenesis after 5-6 wk of fasting were investigated in five of the(More)
Amino acid balance across skeletal muscle and across subcutaneous adipose tissue plus skin of the forearm has been quantified in postabsorptive man before and after insulin infusion into the brachial artery. Skeletal muscle released significant amounts of alpha amino nitrogen after an overnight fast. Most individual amino acids were released. Alanine output(More)
Plasma concentration, splanchnic and renal exchange, and urinary excretion of 20 amino acids were studied in obese subjects during prolonged (5-6 wk) starvation. Splanchnic amino acid uptake was also investigated in postabsorptive and briefly (36-48 hr) fasted subjects.A transient increase in plasma valine, leucine, isoleucine, methionine, and(More)