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Two lines of evidence suggest that the Sry-related gene Sox9 is important for chondrogenesis in mammalian embryos. Sox9 mRNA is expressed in chondrogenic condensations in mice, and mutations in human SOX9 are known to cause skeletal dysplasia. We show here that mouse SOX9 protein is able to bind to a SOX/SRY consensus motif in DNA and contains a modular(More)
Although fetal growth is generally considered to be independent of pituitary growth hormone (GH), it is possible that pituitary GH plays a modulatory role in organ development or that a GH-like substance of non pituitary origin may influence fetal growth through the GH receptor. Accordingly, we have used immunohistochemistry, northern blot analysis, the(More)
The lymphatic system plays a key role in tissue fluid regulation and tumour metastasis, and lymphatic defects underlie many pathological states including lymphoedema, lymphangiectasia, lymphangioma and lymphatic dysplasia. However, the origins of the lymphatic system in the embryo, and the mechanisms that direct growth of the network of lymphatic vessels,(More)
We have constructed a mammalian expression vector consisting of 3 kilobases of the human beta-actin gene 5' flanking sequence plus 5' untranslated region and intervening sequence 1 linked at the 3' splice site to a short DNA polylinker sequence containing unique Sal I, HindIII, and BamHI restriction endonuclease sites followed by a simian virus 40 (SV40)(More)
We describe a functional and biochemical link between the myogenic activator MyoD, the deacetylase HDAC1, and the tumor suppressor pRb. Interaction of MyoD with HDAC1 in undifferentiated myoblasts mediates repression of muscle-specific gene expression. Prodifferentiation cues, mimicked by serum removal, induce both downregulation of HDAC1 protein and pRb(More)
Skeletal muscle is a major mass peripheral tissue that accounts for approximately 40% of the total body mass and a major player in energy balance. It accounts for >30% of energy expenditure, is the primary tissue of insulin stimulated glucose uptake, disposal, and storage. Furthermore, it influences metabolism via modulation of circulating and stored lipid(More)
BACKGROUND Systemic administration of beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR) agonists has been found to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy and significant metabolic changes. In the context of energy homeostasis, the importance of beta-AR signaling has been highlighted by the inability of beta(1-3)-AR-deficient mice to regulate energy expenditure and susceptibility to(More)
The nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily includes the orphan NR4A subgroup, comprised of Nur77 (NR4A1), Nurr1 (NR4A2) and NOR-1 (NR4A3). These NRs are classified as early response genes, are induced by a diverse range of signals, including fatty acids, stress, growth factors, cytokines, peptide hormones, phorbol esters, neurotransmitters, and physical(More)
Lipid homeostasis is controlled by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARalpha, -beta/delta, and -gamma) that function as fatty acid-dependent DNA-binding proteins that regulate lipid metabolism. In vitro and in vivo genetic and pharmacological studies have demonstrated PPARalpha regulates lipid catabolism. In contrast, PPARgamma regulates(More)
The staggerer mice carry a deletion in the RORalpha gene and have a prolonged humoral response, overproduce inflammatory cytokines, and are immunodeficient. Furthermore, the staggerer mice display lowered plasma apoA-I/-II, decreased plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides, and develop hypo-alpha-lipoproteinemia and atherosclerosis.(More)