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Mutation induction in directly exposed cells is currently regarded as the main component of the genetic risk of ionizing radiation for humans. However, recent data on the transgenerational increases in mutation rates in the offspring of irradiated parents indicate that the genetic risk could be greater than predicted previously. Here, we have analysed(More)
A mechanistic understanding of carcinogenic genotoxicity is necessary to determine consequences of chemical exposure on human populations and improve health risk assessments. Currently, linear dose-responses are assumed for DNA reactive compounds, ignoring cytoprotective processes that may limit permanent damage. To investigate the biological significance(More)
This report summarizes the discussion, conclusions, and points of consensus of the IWGT Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (QWG) based on a meeting in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil October 31-November 2, 2013. Topics addressed included (1) the need for quantitative dose-response analysis, (2) methods to analyze(More)
Until recently, there has only been a limited amount of data available on the kinetics of mutation induction in the low dose region of exposure. In our publication Doak et al. [S.H. Doak, G.J. Jenkins, G.E. Johnson, E. Quick, E.M. Parry, J.M. Parry, Mechanistic influences for mutation induction curves after exposure to DNA-reactive carcinogens, Cancer Res.(More)
A complete hazard and risk assessment of any known genotoxin requires the evaluation of the mutagenic, clastogenic and aneugenic potential of the compound. In the case of aneugenic chemicals, mechanism of action (MOA) and quantitative responses may be investigated by studying their effects upon the fidelity of functioning of components of the cell cycle.(More)
A comprehensive evaluation of the genotoxic potential of chemicals requires the assessment of the ability to induce gene mutations and structural chromosome (clastogenic activity) and numerical chromosome (aneugenic activity) aberrations. Aneuploidy is a major cause of human reproductive failure and an important contributor to cancer and it is therefore(More)
In this study, we investigated the applicability of using in vivo mouse micronucleus (MN) data to derive cancer potency information. We also present a new statistical methodology for correlating estimated potencies between in vivo MN tests and cancer studies, which could similarly be used for other systems (e.g. in vitro vs. in vivo genotoxicity tests). The(More)
Genotoxic tolerance to low-level exposure of monofunctional alkylating agents is compound specific, with the mechanism pertaining to alkyl-induced genotoxic threshold response as yet unknown. N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), an initiator glycosylase of the base excision repair (BER) pathway, typically repairs alkyl-induced DNA adducts, many of which(More)
The demonstration and acceptance of dose response thresholds for genotoxins may have substantial implications for the setting of safe exposure levels. Here we test the hypothesis that direct-acting DNA reactive agents may exhibit thresholded dose responses. We examine the potential mechanisms involved in such thresholded responses, particularly in relation(More)
This is the second of two reports from the International Workshops on Genotoxicity Testing (IWGT) Working Group on Quantitative Approaches to Genetic Toxicology Risk Assessment (the QWG). The first report summarized the discussions and recommendations of the QWG related to the need for quantitative dose-response analysis of genetic toxicology data, the(More)