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The dynamic pattern of fetal breathing was studied in 17 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm. The instantaneous breathing rate time series appeared similar on different time scales, with clusters of faster breathing rates interspersed with periods of relative quiescience, suggesting self-similarity.(More)
Morphine has been reported to both stimulate and suppress fetal breathing movements (FBM). In light of these conflicting reports, we have conducted a systematic dose-response analysis of the effects of morphine on FBM in 27 fetal lambs. Morphine was infused directly to the fetus in doses ranging from 0.075 to 80 mg/hr. Low doses (0.075-2.5 mg/hr) resulted(More)
Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery (TEM) is a minimally invasive oncological resection procedure that utilises a natural orifice approach rather than the traditional abdominal or open approach. However, TEM has a significant recurrence rate due to incomplete excisions, which can possibly be attributed to the absence of intraoperative image guidance. The use(More)
The mechanism of action of low doses of morphine on breathing dynamics in the fetus was studied in 16 fetal lambs with chronically implanted electromyographic electrodes in the diaphragm. Morphine (0.15-2.5 mg/h) caused a significant dose-dependent increase in the number of diaphragmatic bursts per hour, with either an increase or no change in instantaneous(More)
With the use of a relatively inexpensive microcomputer-based system for power spectral analysis, we have been able to provide quantitative information on maturational changes in electrocorticogram waveforms in the third-trimester fetal lamb. Twenty-six electrocorticogram recordings were obtained from nine fetal lambs, with gestational ages ranging from 114(More)
Twin–twin transfusion syndrome requires interventional treatment using a fetoscopically introduced laser to sever the shared blood supply between the fetuses. This is a delicate procedure relying on small instrumentation with limited articulation to guide the laser tip and a narrow field of view to visualize all relevant vascular connections. In this(More)
Twin-to-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS) is a progressive pregnancy complication in which inter-twin vascular connections in the shared placenta result in a blood flow imbalance between the twins. The most effective therapy is to sever these connections by laser photo-coagulation. However, the limited field of view of the fetoscope hinders their(More)
A relatively powerful and inexpensive microcomputer-based system for the spectral analysis of the EEG is presented. High resolution and speed is achieved with the use of recently available large-scale integrated circuit technology with enhanced functionality (INTEL Math co-processors 8087) which can perform transcendental functions rapidly. The versatility(More)
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