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1. In the mollusc Tritonia escape swimming is produced by a network of central pattern generator (CPG) neurons. The purpose of this study was to determine which neurotransmitters might be involved in the swim system. 2. Injection of serotonin (5HT) into whole animals elicited swimming followed by a long-lasting inhibition of swimming. In isolated brain(More)
'Independent component analysis' is a technique of data transformation that finds independent sources of activity in recorded mixtures of sources. It can be used to recover fluctuations of membrane potential from individual neurons in multiple-detector optical recordings. There are some examples in which more than 100 neurons can be separated(More)
To understand the relationship between memory storage sites in the brain and learned changes in behavior, the learned behavior must be characterized. However, even simple types of learning may be quite complex. Repeated elicitation of the Tritonia swim produced multiple changes in the response. Several types of acquisition curves were observed in a single(More)
When repeatedly elicited, the oscillatory escape swim of the marine mollusc Tritonia diomedea undergoes habituation of the number of cycles per swim. Because the neural circuit for this behavior is reasonably well understood, a cellular analyses of habituation in Tritonia is feasible. Since such a study must ultimately relate cellular correlates to(More)
The role of nonassociative learning processes in determining whether or not a chemical stimulus will elicit the Tritonia diomedea swimming response was examined in a variety of conditioning experiments. Iterative presentation of a chemical stimulus resulted in a reduced swimming probability (SP). By the criteria of Thompson and Spencer (Thompson RF, Spencer(More)
AIMS Previous studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential for human embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells (hES-NPCs) in autoimmune and genetic animal models of demyelinating diseases. Herein, we tested whether intravenous (i.v.) administration of hES-NPCs would impact central nervous system (CNS) demyelination in a cuprizone model of(More)
Nomenclature for simple types of learning is ambiguous and incomplete, as even commonly used terms such as 'habituation' and 'sensitization' are not applied consistently. One problem is a failure to distinguish between operational and theoretical constructs linguistically. Operational terminology for reporting behavioural results should be different from(More)
Physiological studies of learning and memory often require reduced nervous system preparations that can be trained by stimulation of neural pathways in a manner that mimics behavioral training. In the isolated brain preparation of the seaslug Tritonia, fictive swimming can be activated with a few electrical pulses applied to the cut end of a nerve, and(More)
We recorded action potential activity from the isolated brain of the nudibranch seaslug Tritonia diomedea during fictive swimming. Candidate central pattern generator (CPG) interneurons were identified by their bursting patterns and positions in the brain. Previously identifed populations of interneurons were imaged, including the dorsal swim interneurons(More)