2 The statements and conclusions in this Report are those of the contractor and not necessarily those of the California Air Resources Board. The mention of commercial products, their source, or their use in connection with material reported herein is not to be construed as actual or implied endorsement of such products.
There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents' perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing's daily area PM(2.5) mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data… (More)
Physical environment, man-made pollution, nutrition and their mutual interactions can be major causes of human diseases. These disease determinants have distinct spatial distributions across geographical units, so that their adequate study involves the investigation of the associated geographical strata. We propose four geographical detectors based on… (More)
BACKGROUND The Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is the most common infectious disease in China, its total incidence being around 500,000~1,000,000 cases per year. The composite space-time disease variation is the result of underlining attribute mechanisms that could provide clues about the physiologic and demographic determinants of disease transmission and… (More)
The theory of quasi-arithmetic means is a powerful tool in the study of covariance functions across space-time. In the present study we use quasi-arithmetic functionals to make inferences about the permissibility of averages of functions that are not, in general, permissible covariance functions. This is the case, e.g., of the geometric and harmonic… (More)
BACKGROUND Population health attributes (such as disease incidence and prevalence) are often estimated using sentinel hospital records, which are subject to multiple sources of uncertainty. When applied to these health attributes, commonly used biased estimation techniques can lead to false conclusions and ineffective disease intervention and control.… (More)
BACKGROUND Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was first reported in November 2002 in China, and spreads to about 30 countries over the next few months. While the characteristics of epidemic transmission are individually assessed, there are also important implicit associations between them. METHODS A novel methodological framework was developed to… (More)
BACKGROUND This work studies the spatiotemporal evolution of bubonic plague in India during 1896-1906 using stochastic concepts and geographical information science techniques. In the past, most investigations focused on selected cities to conduct different kinds of studies, such as the ecology of rats. No detailed maps existed incorporating the space-time… (More)