George Christakos

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JIN-FENG WANG*{, XIN-HU LI{, GEORGE CHRISTAKOS§, YI-LAN LIAO{, TIN ZHANG", XUE GU" and XIAO-YING ZHENG** {Institute of Geographic Sciences & Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China {Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361003, China §Department of Geography, San Diego State University,(More)
BACKGROUND The Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is the most common infectious disease in China, its total incidence being around 500,000~1,000,000 cases per year. The composite space-time disease variation is the result of underlining attribute mechanisms that could provide clues about the physiologic and demographic determinants of disease transmission and(More)
BACKGROUND This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. METHODS Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating(More)
OBJECTIVE We analysed and mapped the distribution of four reportable sexually transmitted diseases, chlamydial infection/non-gonococcal urethritis (chlamydial infection), gonorrhoea, primary and secondary syphilis (syphilis), and HIV infection, for Wake County, North Carolina, to optimise an intervention. METHODS We used STD surveillance data reported to(More)
Recent El Niño events have emphasized the need to develop modelling techniques to assess climate-related health events. Experts agree that climate changes affect the spread of infectious diseases and that the geographic range of infectious diseases may expand as a result of these changes. Nevertheless, the world health modelling community cannot yet(More)
BACKGROUND This work studies the spatiotemporal evolution of bubonic plague in India during 1896-1906 using stochastic concepts and geographical information science techniques. In the past, most investigations focused on selected cities to conduct different kinds of studies, such as the ecology of rats. No detailed maps existed incorporating the space-time(More)
In geosciences, one often needs to estimate the spatial means of surfaces representing physical attributes. Under certain conditions, this kind of estimation is often performed by a simple summation of a random sample or by some kind of a Kriging (spatial regression) technique. For example, the naive sample mean assumes that the sample is randomly(More)
There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents' perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing's daily area PM(2.5) mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data(More)
BACKGROUND Neural tube defect (NTD) prevalence in northern China is among the highest worldwide. Dealing with the NTD situation is ranked as the number one task in China's scientific development plan in population and health field for the next decade. Physical and social environments account for much of the disease's occurrence. The environmental(More)
The occurrence of arsenic in drinking water is an issue of considerable interest. In the case of Bangladesh, arsenic concentrations have been closely monitored since the early 1990s through an extensive sampling network. The focus of the present work is methodological. In particular, we propose the application of a holistochastic framework of human exposure(More)