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There has been discrepancies between the daily air quality reports of the Beijing municipal government, observations recorded at the U.S. Embassy in Beijing, and Beijing residents' perceptions of air quality. This study estimates Beijing's daily area PM(2.5) mass concentration by means of a novel technique SPA (Single Point Areal Estimation) that uses data(More)
Physical environment, man-made pollution, nutrition and their mutual interactions can be major causes of human diseases. These disease determinants have distinct spatial distributions across geographical units, so that their adequate study involves the investigation of the associated geographical strata. We propose four geographical detectors based on(More)
BACKGROUND The Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD) is the most common infectious disease in China, its total incidence being around 500,000~1,000,000 cases per year. The composite space-time disease variation is the result of underlining attribute mechanisms that could provide clues about the physiologic and demographic determinants of disease transmission and(More)
OBJECTIVE We analysed and mapped the distribution of four reportable sexually transmitted diseases, chlamydial infection/non-gonococcal urethritis (chlamydial infection), gonorrhoea, primary and secondary syphilis (syphilis), and HIV infection, for Wake County, North Carolina, to optimise an intervention. METHODS We used STD surveillance data reported to(More)
—Atmospheric studies often require the generation of high-resolution maps of ozone distribution across space and time. The high natural variability of ozone concentrations and the different levels of accuracy of the algorithms used to generate data from remote sensing instruments introduce major sources of uncertainty in ozone modeling and mapping. These(More)
In geosciences, one often needs to estimate the spatial means of surfaces representing physical attributes. Under certain conditions, this kind of estimation is often performed by a simple summation of a random sample or by some kind of a Kriging (spatial regression) technique. For example, the naive sample mean assumes that the sample is randomly(More)
This work is concerned with the development of a method to study the impact of ozone exposure on human health. The analysis is based on random field representations of exposure variation and health damage uncertainty in a composite space/time continuum, which previous studies did not allow. Ozone exposure-health damage is considered as a spatiotemporal(More)
The incorporation of various sources of physical knowledge is an important aspect of spatiotemporal analysis and mapping. There exist two major knowledge bases: general knowledge and specificatory knowledge. The latter includes hard data (exact measurements) and soft data knowledge bases (such as measurement intervals, probability assessments, expert views,(More)
BACKGROUND Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was first reported in November 2002 in China, and spreads to about 30 countries over the next few months. While the characteristics of epidemic transmission are individually assessed, there are also important implicit associations between them. METHODS A novel methodological framework was developed to(More)
BACKGROUND This work studies the spatiotemporal evolution of bubonic plague in India during 1896-1906 using stochastic concepts and geographical information science techniques. In the past, most investigations focused on selected cities to conduct different kinds of studies, such as the ecology of rats. No detailed maps existed incorporating the space-time(More)