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A daptation and Natural Selection began as a polemic. In the s, the evolutionary biolo-Wright had combined Darwinian natural selection with Mendelian genetics to develop a rigorous mathematical evolutionary theory. But thirty years after this " modern synthesis, " George Williams found that evolutionary thought had grown flabby and popular understanding(More)
While evolution by natural selection has long been a foundation for biomedical science, it has recently gained new power to explain many aspects of disease. This progress results largely from the disciplined application of what has been called the adaptations program. We show that this increasingly significant research paradigm can predict otherwise(More)
Thoughtful contemplation of the human body elicits awe-in equal measure with perplexity. The eye, for instance, has long been an object of wonder, with the clear, living tissue of the cornea curving just the right amount, the iris adjusting to brightness and the lens to distance, so that the optimal quantity of light focuses exactly on the surface of the(More)
Diseases result usually from webs of interacting causes of enormous complexity, while human minds seek explanatory principles of extraordinary simplicity. This conflict gives rise to a central problem for medicine. Explanations of disease, and most programmes of medical research , tend to emphasize a single cause, while most diseases result from multiple(More)
The Prisoner's Dilemma has long been the paradigm for modeling cooperation in a competitive environment. The classical version, in which both agents simultaneously choose to cooperate or to defect, is unnecessarily artificial. The stochastic Alternating Prisoner's Dilemma in which choices are made sequentially and mistakes are possible is more faithful to(More)