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In response to increasing cost pressures, healthcare systems are encouraging the use of generic medicines. This review explores potential problems with generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). A broad search strategy identified approximately 70 relevant articles. Potential problems with generic substitution included: The limited evidence (mainly(More)
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess whether the administration of hypertonic saline dextran (HSD) was detrimental when administered to patients who were hypotensive because of penetrating injuries to the torso. The administration of HSD causes an immediate and sustained increase in blood pressure that could contribute to an increase in(More)
BACKGROUND Resuscitation with hypertonic saline/dextran (HSD) has been suggested to be efficacious in patients who have traumatic brain injury and are hypotensive. We undertook a cohort analysis of individual patient data from previous prospective randomized double-blinded trials to evaluate improvements in survival at 24 hours and discharge after initial(More)
Small-volume hypertonic resuscitation has been proposed as an effective means for restoration of cardiovascular function after hemorrhage at the scene of an accident. We evaluated the cardiovascular, metabolic, and neurohumoral response of resuscitation after hemorrhage using 200 ml of 2400 mosm sodium chloride, 6% dextran 70. Unanesthetized adult sheep(More)
BACKGROUND Individual trials of small-volume resuscitation of 7.5% NaCl (HS) with and without 6% dextran 70 (HSD) for the treatment of trauma have failed to provide convincing evidence of efficacy. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of HS and HSD on survival until discharge or for 30 days. We identified eight double-blinded, randomized(More)
Cardiovascular resuscitation of the severely injured patient in the field remains unsatisfactory because large volumes of intravenous fluid are needed to keep up with ongoing blood losses and because only small volumes of fluid can be given. In the first study reported here, small volumes (less than or equal to 12 mL/kg) of 3% NaCl were given to patients(More)
We tested the hypothesis that full or "standard resuscitation" (SR) with lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) results in increased bleeding in uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock, compared with a "limited prehospital resuscitation" (LPR) regimen and a control group of "no resuscitation" (NR). Cardiac output was used as physiological endpoint for resuscitation.(More)
Small volumes (4 ml/kg) of 2400 mOsm NaCl restore cardiac output and mean arterial pressure to 80% of baseline after hemorrhage (65% of blood volume) in unanesthetized sheep. An equal volume of normal saline is less effective. To identify an optimal hypertonic solution, we screened six 2400 mOsm solutions in 18 randomized experiments in 8 sheep: NaCl,(More)
Burn injury remains a constant source of morbidity and mortality in the military environment. The logistic constraints of combat casualty care can make it impossible to provide the large volumes of crystalloid typically used for burn resuscitation. Unlike penetrating trauma, the immediate and sustained fluid requirements necessary for resuscitation of(More)
The potential to be successfully resuscitation from severe traumatic hemorrhagic shock is not only limited by the "golden 1 hr", but also by the "brass (or platinum) 10 mins" for combat casualties and civilian trauma victims with traumatic exsanguination. One research challenge is to determine how best to prevent cardiac arrest during severe hemorrhage,(More)