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BACKGROUND Limited neurobiological data have implicated central arginine vasopressin in the pathobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on twin, family genetic, and pharmacological studies, some forms of OCD are etiologically related to Tourette's syndrome. The role of arginine vasopressin and related compounds such as oxytocin in Tourette's(More)
BACKGROUND Depression has been linked to stress, memory deficits, and hypercortisolemia. However, the relationships between depression, hippocampal structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear and the effects of antidepressant treatment on the measures are not well studied. METHODS Whole hippocampal volume, performance on verbal and visual(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's, and PDD-not otherwise specified(More)
To identify the fates that astroglial cells can attain in the postnatal brain, we generated mice carrying an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER(T2)) controlled by the human GFAP promoter (hGFAP). In mice carrying the GCE (hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)) transgene, OHT (4-hydroxy-tamoxifen) injections induced Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal day 5 and(More)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, and serotonergic agents are of central importance in neuropharmacology. Genes encoding various components of the 5-HT system are being studied as risk factors in depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, aggression,(More)
Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by tics, sensorimotor gating deficiencies, and abnormalities of cortico-basal ganglia circuits. A mutation in histidine decarboxylase (Hdc), the key enzyme for the biosynthesis of histamine (HA), has been implicated as a rare genetic cause. Hdc knockout mice exhibited potentiated tic-like stereotypies, recapitulating(More)
It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are(More)
RATIONALE Environmental stimuli associated with cocaine are known to elicit drug craving and increase the likelihood of relapse. However, the psychobiological changes that occur with exposure to these stimuli and in episodes of drug craving are not well understood. This study examined the response of brain stress circuits to environmental stimuli that are(More)
BACKGROUND Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitant hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress(More)
BACKGROUND Variation in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor (CRHR1) gene has been shown to interact with early life stress to predict adult depression. This study was conducted to determine whether CRHR1 polymorphisms interact with childhood maltreatment to predict hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, which has been linked to both(More)