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The broad variation in phenotypes and severities within autism spectrum disorders suggests the involvement of multiple predisposing factors, interacting in complex ways with normal developmental courses and gradients. Identification of these factors, and the common developmental path into which they feed, is hampered by the large degrees of convergence from(More)
To identify the fates that astroglial cells can attain in the postnatal brain, we generated mice carrying an inducible Cre recombinase (Cre-ER(T2)) controlled by the human GFAP promoter (hGFAP). In mice carrying the GCE (hGFAP-Cre-ER(T2)) transgene, OHT (4-hydroxy-tamoxifen) injections induced Cre recombination in astroglial cells at postnatal day 5 and(More)
BACKGROUND Limited neurobiological data have implicated central arginine vasopressin in the pathobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on twin, family genetic, and pharmacological studies, some forms of OCD are etiologically related to Tourette's syndrome. The role of arginine vasopressin and related compounds such as oxytocin in Tourette's(More)
BACKGROUND Depression has been linked to stress, memory deficits, and hypercortisolemia. However, the relationships between depression, hippocampal structure and function, and cortisol levels are unclear and the effects of antidepressant treatment on the measures are not well studied. METHODS Whole hippocampal volume, performance on verbal and visual(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate group differences, the within-group distributions, and the clinical correlates of platelet serotonin (5-HT) levels in pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). METHOD Platelet 5-HT levels were measured in Dutch children and young adults, recruited from 2001 through 2003, with PDD (autism, Asperger's, and PDD-not otherwise specified(More)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, and serotonergic agents are of central importance in neuropharmacology. Genes encoding various components of the 5-HT system are being studied as risk factors in depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, aggression,(More)
Plasma levels of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones beta-endorphin (BE), adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), and cortisol were measured in autistic (N = 48), mentally retarded/cognitively impaired (MR/CI, N = 16), and normal control (N = 26) individuals. Comparison of log transformed data from the three groups revealed that levels of BE and(More)
This review presents a models of disease pathogenesis in the context of CNS development. It begins with an exploration of the clinical features and natural history of Tourette's syndrome. This is followed by a consideration of the role of genetic and nongenetic factors. An effort is then made to review the anatomical organization of the basal ganglia and(More)
It is of considerable translational importance whether depression is a form or a consequence of sickness behavior. Sickness behavior is a behavioral complex induced by infections and immune trauma and mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is an adaptive response that enhances recovery by conserving energy to combat acute inflammation. There are(More)
RATIONALE Environmental stimuli associated with cocaine are known to elicit drug craving and increase the likelihood of relapse. However, the psychobiological changes that occur with exposure to these stimuli and in episodes of drug craving are not well understood. This study examined the response of brain stress circuits to environmental stimuli that are(More)