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Mitochondria maintain tight regulation of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) permeability to sustain ATP production. Stressful events cause cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) dysregulation followed by rapid loss of IMM potential known as permeability transition (PT), which produces osmotic shifts, metabolic dysfunction, and cell death. The molecular identity of the(More)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most frequent birth defect, affecting 0.8% of live births. Many cases occur sporadically and impair reproductive fitness, suggesting a role for de novo mutations. Here we compare the incidence of de novo mutations in 362 severe CHD cases and 264 controls by analysing exome sequencing of parent-offspring trios. CHD cases(More)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence or drastic decrease of the structural protein, dystrophin, and is characterized by sar-colemmal lesions in skeletal muscle due to the stress of contraction. Dystrophin has been localized to the sarcolemma, but its organization there is not known. We report immunofluorescence studies which show(More)
The cardiac conduction system is a network of cells responsible for the rhythmic and coordinated excitation of the heart. Components of the murine conduction system, including the peripheral Purkinje fibers, are morphologically indistinguishable from surrounding cardiomyocytes, and a paucity of molecular markers exists to identify these cells. The murine(More)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence or drastic decrease of the structural protein, dystrophin, and is characterized by sarcolemmal lesions in skeletal muscle due to the stress of contraction. Dystrophin has been localized to the sarcolemma, but its organization there is not known. We report immunofluorescence studies which show that(More)
The current model of apoptosis holds that upstream signals lead to activation of downstream effector caspases. We generated mice deficient in the two effectors, caspase 3 and caspase 7, which died immediately after birth with defects in cardiac development. Fibroblasts lacking both enzymes were highly resistant to both mitochondrial and death(More)
Ischemic heart disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Although interventions, such as thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention, have proven efficacious in ischemia and reperfusion injury, the underlying pathological process of ischemic heart disease, laboratory studies suggest further protection is possible,(More)
Ion transport across the mitochondrial inner and outer membranes is central to mitochondrial function, including regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and cell death. Although essential for ATP production by mitochondria, recent findings have confirmed that the c-subunit of the ATP synthase also houses a large conductance uncoupling channel, the(More)
Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is significantly worse in aged hearts, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Age-related damage to mitochondria may be a critical feature, which manifests in an exacerbation of IR injury. Silent information regulator of transcription 3 (SIRT3), the major mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacetylase,(More)
The development of a reproducible animal model that mimics CSA nephropathy in man has allowed the examination of the several proposed mechanisms of toxicity. While the precise mechanism remains to be defined, important clues have been provided and creative techniques for minimizing the adverse effects of this very valuable adjunct to transplant success have(More)