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Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence or drastic decrease of the structural protein, dystrophin, and is characterized by sarcolemmal lesions in skeletal muscle due to the stress of contraction. Dystrophin has been localized to the sarcolemma, but its organization there is not known. We report immunofluorescence studies which show that(More)
Mitochondria maintain tight regulation of inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM) permeability to sustain ATP production. Stressful events cause cellular calcium (Ca(2+)) dysregulation followed by rapid loss of IMM potential known as permeability transition (PT), which produces osmotic shifts, metabolic dysfunction, and cell death. The molecular identity of the(More)
The current model of apoptosis holds that upstream signals lead to activation of downstream effector caspases. We generated mice deficient in the two effectors, caspase 3 and caspase 7, which died immediately after birth with defects in cardiac development. Fibroblasts lacking both enzymes were highly resistant to both mitochondrial and death(More)
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most frequent birth defect, affecting 0.8% of live births. Many cases occur sporadically and impair reproductive fitness, suggesting a role for de novo mutations. Here we compare the incidence of de novo mutations in 362 severe CHD cases and 264 controls by analysing exome sequencing of parent-offspring trios. CHD cases(More)
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by the absence or drastic decrease of the structural protein, dystrophin, and is characterized by sar-colemmal lesions in skeletal muscle due to the stress of contraction. Dystrophin has been localized to the sarcolemma, but its organization there is not known. We report immunofluorescence studies which show(More)
The cardiac conduction system is a network of cells responsible for the rhythmic and coordinated excitation of the heart. Components of the murine conduction system, including the peripheral Purkinje fibers, are morphologically indistinguishable from surrounding cardiomyocytes, and a paucity of molecular markers exists to identify these cells. The murine(More)
We use immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation, and centrifugation in sucrose density gradients to show that the product of the erythrocyte beta-spectrin gene in rat skeletal muscle (muscle beta-spectrin) is present in two states, one associated with fodrin, and another that is not associated with any identifiable spectrin or fodrin subunit. Immunofluorescence(More)
Ischemic heart disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. Although interventions, such as thrombolysis and percutaneous coronary intervention, have proven efficacious in ischemia and reperfusion injury, the underlying pathological process of ischemic heart disease, laboratory studies suggest further protection is possible,(More)
The lectins Griffonia simplicifolia I and Lycopersicon esculentum were used to assess the presence of endothelium-specific glycoproteins in the microvasculature of the rat myocardium, diaphragm and superficial cerebral cortex. Organs fixed by intravascular perfusion were processed to obtain semithin (0.5 micron) and thin (less than 0.1 micron) frozen(More)