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We report the first X-ray diffraction on gramicidin in its membrane-active form by using uniformly aligned multilayer samples of membranes containing gramicidin and ions (T1+, K+, Ba2+, Mg2+ or without ions). From the difference electron density profiles, we found a pair of symmetrically located ion-binding sites for T1- at 9.6 (+/- 0.3) A and for Ba2+ at(More)
Atmospheric Pollution by Mark Z. Jacobson Course Description. The effects of human activity on atmospheric composition, focused on global warming, the carbon cycle, air pollution, and the ozone layer. Fundamentals of atmospheric chemistry (spectroscopy, kinetics, isotopic analysis, and biogeochemical cycles) are related to the modern understanding of(More)
Parrots (Psittaciformes) are among the most threatened bird orders with 28 % (111 of 398) of extant species classified as threatened under IUCN criteria. We confirmed that parrots have a lower Red List Index (higher aggregate extinction risk) than other comparable bird groups, and modeled the factors associated with extinction risk. Our analyses included(More)
Primer pairs were designed for 41 di-nucleotide microsatellite loci identified from across the full genome of the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao). We present the best 30 polymorphic loci with 5–22 alleles, 3–14 effective alleles and expected heterozygosities of 0.669–0.930. These markers will facilitate population genetic and conservation genetic studies on(More)
Fluoroform (CF(3)H), a large-volume by-product of the manufacture of Teflon, refrigerants, polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), fire-extinguishing agents, and foams, is a potent and stable greenhouse gas that has found little practical use despite the growing importance of trifluoromethyl (CF3) functionality in more structurally elaborate pharmaceuticals,(More)
Genetic tagging is the unique identification of individuals by their DNA profile. This technique is well established in mammals, but it has not yet been widely adopted for birds. Extraction methods for minute amounts of DNA even enable the use of genetic tagging from non-invasive samples, like hair, scat, or feather. In this study, we evaluate the potential(More)
Dispersal is essential for species persistence and landscape genetic studies are valuable tools for identifying potential barriers to dispersal. Macaws have been studied for decades in their natural habitat, but we still have no knowledge of how natural landscape features influence their dispersal. We tested for correlations between landscape resistance(More)
The rearrangement pathways of the equilibrating tertiary carbocations, 2,3-dimethyl-2-butyl cation (C6H13(+), 1), 2,3,3-trimethyl-2-butyl cation (C7H15(+), 5) and 2,3-dimethyl-2-pentyl cation (C7H15(+), 8 and 9) were investigated using the ab initio/GIAO-CCSD(T) (13)C NMR method. Comparing the calculated and experimental (13)C NMR chemical shifts of a(More)