Learn More
INTRODUCTION Directional connectivity from anterior to posterior brain regions (or "feedback" connectivity) has been shown to be inhibited by propofol and sevoflurane. In this study the authors tested the hypothesis that ketamine would also inhibit cortical feedback connectivity in frontoparietal networks. METHODS Surgical patients (n = 30) were recruited(More)
The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing(More)
The brain is assumed to be hypoactive during cardiac arrest. However, the neurophysiological state of the brain immediately following cardiac arrest has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed continuous electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental cardiac arrest and analyzed changes in power density, coherence, directed(More)
Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and occurs in the perioperative period. The authors studied the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of perioperative stroke using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. METHODS Data on 523,059 noncardiac, nonneurologic patients in(More)
Psychosurgery, the neurosurgical treatment of psychiatric disease, has a history dating back to antiquity, and involves all of the clinical neurosciences. This review discusses the history of psychosurgery, its development in the 19th century, and the conditions of its use and abuse in the 20th century, with a particular focus on the frontal lobotomy. The(More)
It is widely acknowledged that a complete theory of consciousness should explain general consciousness (what makes a state conscious at all) and specific consciousness (what gives a conscious state its particular phenomenal quality). We defend first-order representationalism, which argues that consciousness consists of sensory representations directly(More)
BACKGROUND Significant advances have been made in our understanding of subcortical processes related to anesthetic- and sleep-induced unconsciousness, but the associated changes in cortical connectivity and cortical neurochemistry have yet to be fully clarified. METHODS Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented for simultaneous measurement of cortical(More)
BACKGROUND The precise mechanism and optimal measure of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness has yet to be elucidated. Preferential inhibition of feedback connectivity from frontal to parietal brain networks is one potential neurophysiologic correlate, but has only been demonstrated in animals or under limited conditions in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND(More)