George A. Mashour

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BACKGROUND Unintended intraoperative awareness, which occurs when general anesthesia is not achieved or maintained, affects up to 1% of patients at high risk for this complication. We tested the hypothesis that a protocol incorporating the electroencephalogram-derived bispectral index (BIS) is superior to a protocol incorporating standard monitoring of(More)
BACKGROUND The precise mechanism and optimal measure of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness has yet to be elucidated. Preferential inhibition of feedback connectivity from frontal to parietal brain networks is one potential neurophysiologic correlate, but has only been demonstrated in animals or under limited conditions in healthy volunteers. METHODS AND(More)
Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and(More)
INTRODUCTION Directional connectivity from anterior to posterior brain regions (or "feedback" connectivity) has been shown to be inhibited by propofol and sevoflurane. In this study the authors tested the hypothesis that ketamine would also inhibit cortical feedback connectivity in frontoparietal networks. METHODS Surgical patients (n = 30) were recruited(More)
Although the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown, altered brain antioxidative mechanisms have been found in both disorders. Ceruloplasmin (CP) and transferrin (TF) interact to limit concentrations of free ferrous iron (Fe2+), and thus play an important role in antioxidant defense in serum; both proteins are(More)
BACKGROUND Intraoperative awareness with explicit recall occurs in approximately 0.15% of all surgical cases. Efficacy trials based on the Bispectral Index® (BIS) monitor (Covidien, Boulder, CO) and anesthetic concentrations have focused on high-risk patients, but there are no effectiveness data applicable to an unselected surgical population. METHODS We(More)
Heparin-binding growth factors have been implicated in central nervous system development, regeneration and pathology. To assess the expression pattern and possible function in multiple sclerosis, the heparin-binding growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine (MK), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and one of its receptors (FGFR1/flg) mRNA and protein(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW We critically review the principles underlying processed electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors and recent studies validating their use in monitoring anesthetic depth. RECENT FINDINGS Depth of anesthesia is a theoretical construct to conceptualize anesthetic effects on the central nervous system as discrete or continuous phases or states.(More)
The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing(More)
BACKGROUND Loss of consciousness is an essential feature of general anesthesia. Although alterations of neural networks during anesthesia have been identified in the spatial domain, there has been relatively little study of temporal organization. METHODS Ten healthy male volunteers were anesthetized with an induction dose of propofol on two separate(More)