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INTRODUCTION Directional connectivity from anterior to posterior brain regions (or "feedback" connectivity) has been shown to be inhibited by propofol and sevoflurane. In this study the authors tested the hypothesis that ketamine would also inhibit cortical feedback connectivity in frontoparietal networks. METHODS Surgical patients (n = 30) were recruited(More)
Heparin-binding growth factors have been implicated in central nervous system development, regeneration and pathology. To assess the expression pattern and possible function in multiple sclerosis, the heparin-binding growth factors pleiotrophin (PTN), midkine (MK), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and one of its receptors (FGFR1/flg) mRNA and protein(More)
BACKGROUND Unintended intraoperative awareness, which occurs when general anesthesia is not achieved or maintained, affects up to 1% of patients at high risk for this complication. We tested the hypothesis that a protocol incorporating the electroencephalogram-derived bispectral index (BIS) is superior to a protocol incorporating standard monitoring of(More)
The cognitive unbinding paradigm suggests that the synthesis of neural information is attenuated by general anesthesia. Here, we analyzed the functional organization of brain activities in the conscious and anesthetized states, based on functional segregation and integration. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were obtained from 14 subjects undergoing(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and occurs in the perioperative period. The authors studied the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of perioperative stroke using the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. METHODS Data on 523,059 noncardiac, nonneurologic patients in(More)
Frontoparietal connectivity has been suggested to be important in conscious processing and its interruption is thought to be one mechanism of general anesthesia. Data in animals demonstrate that feedforward processing of information may persist during the anesthetized state, while feedback processing is inhibited. We investigated the directionality and(More)
Although the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown, altered brain antioxidative mechanisms have been found in both disorders. Ceruloplasmin (CP) and transferrin (TF) interact to limit concentrations of free ferrous iron (Fe2+), and thus play an important role in antioxidant defense in serum; both proteins are(More)
Since its introduction in 1965, minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) has served as the standard measure of potency for volatile anaesthetic agents. It is defined as the minimum alveolar concentration of inhaled anaesthetic at which 50% of people do not move in response to a noxious stimulus. Within the last 20 years, it has been discovered that volatile(More)
The brain is assumed to be hypoactive during cardiac arrest. However, the neurophysiological state of the brain immediately following cardiac arrest has not been systematically investigated. In this study, we performed continuous electroencephalography in rats undergoing experimental cardiac arrest and analyzed changes in power density, coherence, directed(More)
BACKGROUND Recent studies of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness in humans have focused predominantly on the intravenous drug propofol and have identified anterior dominance of alpha rhythms and frontal phase-amplitude coupling patterns as neurophysiological markers. However, it is unclear whether the correlates of propofol-induced unconsciousness are(More)