George A. Kosmiadi

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The human tuberculous granuloma provides the morphological basis for local immune processes central to the outcome of tuberculosis. Because of the scarcity of information in human patients, the aim of the present study was to gain insights into the functional and structural properties of infiltrated tissue. To this end, the mycobacterial load in lesions and(More)
Although tuberculosis remains a substantial global threat, the mechanisms that enable mycobacterial persistence and replication within the human host are ill defined. This study represents the first genome-wide expression analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from clinical lung samples, which has enabled the identification of M. tuberculosis genes actively(More)
Apoptosis and activation of macrophages play an important role in the host response to mycobacterial infection involving TNF-alpha as a critical autocrine mediator. The underlying mechanisms are still ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate elevated levels of methylglyoxal (MG), a small and reactive molecule that is usually a physiological product of various(More)
Tuberculosis (TB) disease may progress at different rates and have different outcomes. Neutrophils have been implicated in TB progression; however, data on their role during TB are controversial. In this study, we show that in mice, TB progression is associated with the accumulation of cells that express neutrophilic markers Gr-1 and Ly-6G but do not belong(More)
The diagnosis of mycobacterial infection depends on the Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) stain, which detects mycobacteria because of their characteristic acid-fast cell wall composition and structure. The histological diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) comprises various aspects: (1) sensitive detection of mycobacteria; (2) precise localization of mycobacteria in the context(More)
BACKGROUND In 90% of all cases, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection results in latency rather than active disease, with the pathogen being contained within granulomatous lesions at the site of primary infection. Failure of this containment leads to reactivation of postprimary tuberculosis (TB). The regional immune processes that sustain the delicate(More)
Lung granulomas develop upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection as a hallmark of human tuberculosis (TB). They are structured aggregates consisting mainly of Mtb-infected and -uninfected macrophages and Mtb-specific T cells. The production of NO by granuloma macrophages expressing nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2) via l-arginine and oxygen is a key(More)
BACKGROUND Effector CD4 T cells represent a key component of the host's anti-tuberculosis immune defense. Successful differentiation and functioning of effector lymphocytes protects the host against severe M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. On the other hand, effector T cell differentiation depends on disease severity/activity, as T cell responses are driven(More)
Background: Effector CD4 T cells represent a key component of the host’s anti-tuberculosis immune defense. Successful differentiation and functioning of effector lymphocytes protects the host against severe M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. On the other hand, effector T cell differentiation depends on disease severity/activity, as T cell responses are driven(More)
The paper outlines the high-priority trends in basic and applied investigations of antituberculous immunity. It presents the results obtained from studies of the genetic mechanisms responsible for the control of susceptibility in experimental tuberculosis, from analyses of novel chemical and recombinant tuberculosis vaccines, from examinations of the role(More)