George A. Belov

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Replication of all positive-strand RNA viruses is intimately associated with membranes. Here we utilize electron tomography and other methods to investigate the remodeling of membranes in poliovirus-infected cells. We found that the viral replication structures previously described as "vesicles" are in fact convoluted, branching chambers with complex and(More)
Human prothymosin alpha is a proliferation-related nuclear protein undergoing caspase-mediated fragmentation in apoptotic cells. We show here that caspase-3 is the principal executor of prothymosin alpha fragmentation in vivo. In apoptotic HeLa cells as well as in vitro, caspase-3 cleaves prothymosin alpha at one major carboxy terminal (DDVD(99)) and(More)
The replication of enteroviruses is sensitive to brefeldin A (BFA), an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi network transport that blocks activation of guanine exchange factors (GEFs) of the Arf GTPases. Mammalian cells contain three BFA-sensitive Arf GEFs: GBF1, BIG1, and BIG2. Here, we show that coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) RNA replication is(More)
Poliovirus and some other picornaviruses trigger relocation of certain nuclear proteins into the cytoplasm. Here, by using a protein changing its fluorescence color with time and containing a nuclear localization signal (NLS), we demonstrate that the poliovirus-triggered relocation is largely due to the exit of presynthesized nuclear protein into the(More)
The death of poliovirus-infected cells may occur in two forms: canonical cytopathic effect (CPE) (on productive infections) or apoptosis (when the viral reproduction is hindered by certain drugs or some other restrictive conditions). Morphological manifestations of the CPE and apoptosis, being distinct, share some traits (e.g., chromatin condensation and(More)
We observed fragmentation of an essential proliferation-related human nuclear protein prothymosin alpha in the course of apoptosis induced by various stimuli. Prothymosin alpha cleavage occurred at the DDVD(99) motif. In vitro, prothymosin alpha could be cleaved at D(99) by caspase-3 and -7. Caspase hydrolysis disrupted the nuclear localization signal of(More)
Infection of cells with poliovirus induces a massive intracellular membrane reorganization to form vesicle-like structures where viral RNA replication occurs. The mechanism of membrane remodeling remains unknown, although some observations have implicated components of the cellular secretory and/or autophagy pathways. Recently, we showed that some members(More)
Replication of many RNA viruses is accompanied by extensive remodeling of intracellular membranes. In poliovirus-infected cells, ER and Golgi stacks disappear, while new clusters of vesicle-like structures form sites for viral RNA synthesis. Virus replication is inhibited by brefeldin A (BFA), implicating some components(s) of the cellular secretory pathway(More)
We have previously shown that synthesis of poliovirus protein 3CD in uninfected HeLa cell extracts induces an increased association with membranes of the cellular Arf GTPases, which are key players in cellular membrane traffic. Arfs cycle between an inactive, cytoplasmic, GDP-bound form and an active, membrane-associated, GTP-bound form. 3CD promotes(More)
Productive poliovirus infection of HeLa cells leads to the canonical cytopathic effect (CPE), whereas certain types of abortive infection result in apoptosis. To define the time course of commitment to the different types of poliovirus-induced death, inhibitors of viral replication (guanidine HCl) or translation (cycloheximide) were added at different times(More)