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OBJECTIVE Although cadmium (Cd) is an important and common environmental pollutant and has been linked to cardiovascular diseases, little is known about its effects in initial stages of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS In the 195 young healthy women of the Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in Female Youngsters (ARFY) study, cadmium (Cd) level was(More)
The present review focuses on the concept that cellular and humoral immunity to the phylogenetically highly conserved antigen heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is the initiating mechanism in the earliest stages of atherosclerosis. Subjecting arterial endothelial cells to classical atherosclerosis risk factors leads to the expression of HSP60 that then may serve(More)
Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease induced by the effects of various risk factors on appropriate genetic backgrounds. It is characterized by vascular areas containing mononuclear and proliferating smooth muscle cells,as well as extracellularmatrix (ECM)2 components resulting in hardening and thickening (arteriosclerosis) of the arterial wall. In a(More)
The mechanism that may cause degenerative fibrotic skin lesions was studied in situ using skin biopsies from patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), localized scleroderma, or keloids, and at the initial disease stage in the University of California at Davis (UCD) lines 200/206 chickens, which develop a hereditary systemic connective tissue disease(More)
Stress or heat shock proteins (hsp) are a family of approximately two dozen proteins with a high degree of amino acid sequence homology between different species, ranging from prokaryotes to humans, and are representative of a generalized response to environmental and metabolic stressors. Our previous studies showed increased expression of human hsp60 on(More)
T-cells and monocytes are the first cells infiltrating the arterial intima during the early stages of atherogenesis. Recently our laboratory has provided evidence that T-cells isolated from atherosclerotic intima reacts against heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60). Transmigration of activated T-cells into the intima is mediated by adhesion molecules (ICAM-1;(More)
Metals are vital for a huge number of physiological processes in the human body, but can also destroy health when the concentration is not within the physiologically favourable range. Cigarette smoking interferes with the carefully controlled metal homeostasis of the human body. This review focuses on the consequences of metal delivery to the human body by(More)
Arteriosclerotic lesions can be induced in normocholesterolaemic rabbits by immunisation with heat-shock protein (hsp) 65, a stress protein expressed in high concentrations in human atherosclerotic lesions. If an immune reaction to hsp65 also plays a part in human atherogenesis, it should be possible to detect anti-hsp65 antibodies in patients with(More)
Saphenous vein grafts are widely used for treatment of severe atherosclerosis via aortocoronary bypass surgery, a procedure often complicated by later occlusion of the graft vessel. Because the molecular mechanisms of this process remain largely unknown, quantitative models of venous bypass graft arteriosclerosis in transgenic mice could be useful to study(More)
Fibrosis is the production of excessive amounts of connective tissue, i.e., scar formation, in the course of reactive and reparative processes. Fibrosis develops as a consequence of various underlying diseases and presents a major diagnostically and therapeutically unsolved problem. In this review, we postulate that fibrosis is always a sequela of(More)