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BACKGROUND The anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib have complementary mechanisms of action and synergistic antitumour activity in models of HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. We argue that the two anti-HER2 agents given together would be better than single-agent therapy. METHODS In this parallel groups,(More)
BACKGROUND Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor A, has shown clinical efficacy in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer. We evaluated the efficacy, measured according to the rate of pathological complete response (absence of invasive and intraductal disease in(More)
BACKGROUND The hypothesis is tested that there is a strong association between endometriosis and adenomyosis and that adenomyosis plays a role in causing infertility in women with endometriosis. METHODS. Magnetic resonance imaging of the uteri was performed in 160 women with and 67 women without endometriosis. The findings were correlated with the stage of(More)
Women suffering from infertility in association with mostly mild endometriosis were subjected to vaginal sonography of uterine peristalsis during the menstrual period, the early, mid- and late follicular phases, and the mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. The data obtained were compared with those of healthy controls. Women with endometriosis displayed(More)
Vaginal ultrasonography of uterine peristalsis during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle demonstrates an increasing frequency and intensity of subendometrial and myometrial peristaltic waves as the follicular phase progresses. During this time the numbers of contraction waves with a fundo-cervical direction decrease considerably in favour of waves(More)
Unlike other smooth muscle organs, the uterine muscle was regarded to be normally functional for only a brief period, following a lengthy gestation. However, recently it has been shown that uterine peristalsis constitutes one of the fundamental functions of the non-pregnant uterus. Its morphological basis is the archimyometrium, which is the muscular(More)
Evidence has been provided that pelvic endometriosis is significantly associated with uterine adenomyosis and that the latter constitutes the major factor of infertility in such conditions. Furthermore, it has become evident that both adenomyosis and endometriosis constitute a pathophysiological and nosological entity. Mild peritoneal endometriosis of the(More)
Endometriosis is considered primarily a disease of the endometrial-subendometrial unit or archimetra. The clinical picture of endometriosis characterises this disease as a hyperactivation of genuine archimetrial functions such as proliferation, inflammatory defence and peristalsis. While the aetiology of the disease remains to be elucidated, a key event(More)
Immunocytochemistry of oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression of the whole uterine muscular wall and the endometrium was performed in order to obtain morphological and functional insights into the regulation of cyclic uterine peristalsis, which is confined to the endometrium and the subendometrial myometrium and serves functions(More)
Peristaltic activity of the nonpregnant uterus serves fundamental functions in the early process of reproduction, such as directed transport of spermatozoa into the tube ipsilateral to the dominant follicle, high fundal implantation of the embryo, and, possibly, retrograde menstruation. Hyperperistalsis of the uterus is significantly associated with the(More)