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Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from cerebral catecholamine deficiency. Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiency has been reported in fewer than 40 patients worldwide. To recapitulate all available evidence on clinical phenotypes and rational diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for this devastating, but treatable,(More)
Glutaric aciduria type I (synonym, glutaric acidemia type I) is a rare organic aciduria. Untreated patients characteristically develop dystonia during infancy resulting in a high morbidity and mortality. The neuropathological correlate is striatal injury which results from encephalopathic crises precipitated by infectious diseases, immunizations and surgery(More)
Guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency, which so far has been exclusively detected in children, was diagnosed in a 26-year-old man. The full-blown spectrum of clinical symptoms already had been present since infancy without progression of symptoms during adolescence. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging showed normal findings. Ophthalmological(More)
OBJECTIVE Sepiapterin reductase deficiency (SRD) is an under-recognized levodopa-responsive disorder. We describe clinical, biochemical, and molecular findings in a cohort of patients with this treatable condition. We aim to improve awareness of the phenotype and available diagnostic and therapeutic strategies to reduce delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis,(More)
OBJECTIVE Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECHS1) is a multifunctional mitochondrial matrix enzyme that is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and essential amino acids such as valine. Here, we describe the broad phenotypic spectrum and pathobiochemistry of individuals with autosomal-recessive ECHS1 deficiency. METHODS Using exome sequencing, we(More)
BACKGROUND Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (GDD) is a recessively inherited neurometabolic disorder associated with encephalopathic crises and severe extrapyramidal symptoms. Treatment regimens including glucose and electrolyte infusions during acute illnesses, oral carnitine supplementation and/or a low-protein or lysine-restricted diet have been(More)
BACKGROUND Next generation sequencing has become the core technology for gene discovery in rare inherited disorders. However, the interpretation of the numerous sequence variants identified remains challenging. We assessed the application of exome sequencing for diagnostics in complex I deficiency, a disease with vast genetic heterogeneity. METHODS Ten(More)
Glutaric aciduria type I (GA I) is a recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). The biochemical hallmark of the disease is the accumulation of glutaric acid and, to a lesser degree, of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and glutaconic acid in body fluids and tissues. A substantial number of patients show only slightly,(More)
Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (GDD) is characterized biochemically by an accumulation of glutaric (GA) and 3-hydroxyglutaric (3-OH-GA) acids and clinically by the development of acute striatal degeneration. 3-OH-GA was recently shown to induce neuronal damage via N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. The pathogenetic role of GA, however, remains(More)