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Despite its inherent mechanical fragility, silica is widely used as a skeletal material in a great diversity of organisms ranging from diatoms and radiolaria to sponges and higher plants. In addition to their micro- and nanoscale structural regularity, many of these hard tissues form complex hierarchically ordered composites. One such example is found in(More)
Many applications in materials science, life science and process control would benefit from atomic force microscopes (AFM) with higher scan speeds. To achieve this, the performance of many of the AFM components has to be increased. In this work, we focus on the cantilever sensor, the scanning unit and the data acquisition. We manufactured 10 microm wide(More)
and control-system design have the potential to allow faster imaging by atomic force microscopes. APPLIED PHYSICS PERSPECTIVES A graduate student was recently heard lamenting, " I feel like my life is passing me by! " as he waited for an atomic force microscope (AFM) image to form line-by-painstaking-line. In AFM, a sharp tip at the end of a tiny cantilever(More)
To improve the performance of atomic force microscopes regarding speed and noise sensitivity, it is important to consider the mechanical rigidity of the actuator (scanner), and the overall mechanical structure. Using finite element analysis in the design process, it was possible to increase the first resonance frequency from 950 Hz for the whole system to(More)
Formulating effective coatings for use in nano- and biotechnology poses considerable technical challenges. If they are to provide abrasion resistance, coatings must be hard and adhere well to the underlying substrate. High hardness, however, comes at the expense of extensibility. This property trade-off makes the design of coatings for even moderately(More)
BACKGROUND Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a direct-writing technique with nanometer resolution, which has received strongly increasing attention within the last decade. In FEBID a precursor previously adsorbed on a substrate surface is dissociated in the focus of an electron beam. After 20 years of continuous development FEBID has(More)
High-speed atomic force microscopy has proven to be a valuable tool for the study of biomolecular systems at the nanoscale. Expanding its application to larger biological specimens such as membranes or cells has, however, proven difficult, often requiring fundamental changes in the AFM instrument. Here we show a way to utilize conventional AFM(More)
The success of high-speed atomic force microscopy in imaging molecular motors, enzymes and microbes in liquid environments suggests that the technique could be of significant value in a variety of areas of nanotechnology. However, the majority of atomic force microscopy experiments are performed in air, and the tapping-mode detection speed of current(More)