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RATIONALE Previously, we have found that changes in the location of intracellular heat shock protein (HSP)60 are associated with apoptosis. HSP60 has been reported to be a ligand of toll-like receptor (TLR)-4. OBJECTIVE We hypothesized that extracellular HSP60 (exHSP60) would mediate apoptosis via TLR4. METHODS AND RESULTS Adult rat cardiac myocytes(More)
c-Myc, a protooncogene, mediates both proliferative and cellular growth in many cell types. Although not expressed in the adult heart under normal physiological conditions, Myc expression is rapidly upregulated in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Although Myc is capable of sustaining hyperplastic growth in fetal myocytes, the effects of its re-expression(More)
AIMS Myocardial function is severely compromised during sepsis. Several underlying mechanisms have been proposed. The innate immune system, i.e. toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, significantly contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Little is known regarding TLR9 and its pathogenic ligand bacterial DNA in the myocardium. We therefore studied the role of TLR9 in(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and nitric oxide (NO) may play a role in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cardiac depression. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) mediates the cytokine response to LPS in immune cells. TLR-4 also is expressed in human and murine myocardial tissue. Therefore, the hypothesis that LPS induces proinflammatory(More)
BACKGROUND Visualisation of a central venous catheter (CVC) with ultrasound is restricted to the internal jugular vein (IJV). CVC tip position is confirmed by chest radiography, intracardiac ECG or transoesophageal/transthoracic echocardiography (TEE/TTE). OBJECTIVE We explored the feasibility, safety and accuracy of a right supraclavicular view for(More)
BACKGROUND Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is reported to reduce biomarkers of ischemic and reperfusion injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but uncertainty about clinical outcomes remains. METHODS We conducted a prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving adults who were scheduled for elective cardiac(More)
Many group G streptococci (GGS) isolated from infected humans (but not from animal sources) express M or M-like proteins with biological, immunochemical, and genetic features similar to those of group A streptococci (GAS). To further elucidate the recently proposed M-like protein gene (emmL gene) polymorphisms in GGS, Southern blots of genomic DNAs from 38(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial DNA containing motifs of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) initiate an innate immune response mediated by the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). This leads in particular to the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). TLR9 is(More)
The phagocytes of the innate immune system, macrophages and neutrophils, contribute to antibacterial defense, but their functional specialization and cooperation is unclear. Here, we report that three distinct phagocyte subsets play highly coordinated roles in bacterial urinary tract infection. Ly6C(-) macrophages acted as tissue-resident sentinels that(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-conditioning with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) may change cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-dependent inflammation and modulates infarct size and cardiac performance. WT and TLR9-deficient mice were pre-treated with 1668-, 1612- and H154-thioate or D-Gal as control. Priming with 1668-thioate(More)