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c-Myc, a protooncogene, mediates both proliferative and cellular growth in many cell types. Although not expressed in the adult heart under normal physiological conditions, Myc expression is rapidly upregulated in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Although Myc is capable of sustaining hyperplastic growth in fetal myocytes, the effects of its re-expression(More)
AIMS Myocardial function is severely compromised during sepsis. Several underlying mechanisms have been proposed. The innate immune system, i.e. toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and 4, significantly contributes to cardiac dysfunction. Little is known regarding TLR9 and its pathogenic ligand bacterial DNA in the myocardium. We therefore studied the role of TLR9 in(More)
The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre-conditioning with CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) may change cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-dependent inflammation and modulates infarct size and cardiac performance. WT and TLR9-deficient mice were pre-treated with 1668-, 1612- and H154-thioate or D-Gal as control. Priming with 1668-thioate(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial DNA containing motifs of unmethylated CpG dinucleotides (CpG-ODN) initiate an innate immune response mediated by the pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). This leads in particular to the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). TLR9 is(More)
BACKGROUND Although previous studies have examined the effects of acute hemodynamic pressure overload on proinflammatory cytokine gene expression, the effects of sustained hemodynamic overloading have not been examined. METHODS AND RESULTS Sustained hemodynamic pressure overloading was produced in mice by transverse constriction of the aorta.(More)
Our current understanding of the pathogenesis of sepsis suggests that bacteria as well as bacterial-derived products activate an uncontrolled network of host-derived mediators such as proinflammatory cytokines (ie, tumor necrosis factor [TNF] and interleukin [IL]-1beta), which can ultimately lead to cardiovascular collapse and death. Despite the potentially(More)
Because of the allelic variations within the M protein gene (emm gene) of group A streptococci, reliable typing of this important human pathogen can be accomplished by the use of emm gene-specific oligonucleotide probes. Two technical modifications (a reverse dot blot and a reverse line blot hybridization assay) of a novel approach for the type-specific(More)
BACKGROUND It has been reported that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) deficiency reduces infarct size after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R). However, measurement of MI/R injury was limited and did not include cardiac function. In a chronic closed-chest model we assessed whether cardiac function is preserved in TLR4-deficient mice (C3H/HeJ) following MI/R,(More)
AIMS Inflammation and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling have been linked to the development of cardiac hypertrophy following transverse aortic constriction (TAC). In the present study, we investigated whether pre-treatment with the synthetic TLR9 ligands 1668-thioate or 1612-thioate modulates the progression of TAC-induced cardiac inflammation and(More)
The phagocytes of the innate immune system, macrophages and neutrophils, contribute to antibacterial defense, but their functional specialization and cooperation is unclear. Here, we report that three distinct phagocyte subsets play highly coordinated roles in bacterial urinary tract infection. Ly6C(-) macrophages acted as tissue-resident sentinels that(More)