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Traditional graphical user interfaces have been designed with the desktop mouse in mind, a device well characterized by Fitts' law. Yet in recent years, hand-held devices and tablet personal computers using a pen (or fingers) as the primary mean of interaction have become more and more popular. These new interaction modalities have pushed the traditional(More)
We introduce CrossY, a simple drawing application we used as a benchmark to demonstrate the feasibility of using goal crossing as the basis for a graphical user interface. We show that crossing is not only as expressive as the current point-and-click interface, but also offers more flexibility in interaction design. In particular, crossing encourages the(More)
Pen gesture interfaces have difficulty supporting arbitrary multiple-stroke selections because lifting the pen introduces ambiguity as to whether the next stroke should add to the existing selection, or begin a new one. We explore and evaluate techniques that use a non-preferred-hand button or touchpad to phrase together one or more independent pen strokes(More)
We introduce CaseCluster, a visualization tool to explore case references between supreme court cases. The interface is based on the InfoVis principle of overview, zoom & filter and details on demand. The tool works in two steps: First, an initial reference-dependent-similarity based clustering and visualization is created, second a user controlled(More)
  • Georg Apitz
  • Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie und…
  • 2005
In einer 0,04% Natriumbikarbonat enthaltenden Ringerlösung führen isolierte Gefäßstreifen aus der Carotis des Pferdes rhythmische Bewegungen aus. In einer Ringerlösung, deren Gehalt an Natriumbikarbonat diese Konzentration nicht erreicht, treten dieselben nicht auf, stellen sich aber ein, wenn nachträglich der Gehalt der Lösung an Natriumbikarbonat auf(More)
We contribute interaction designs and an experiment that explore the design space of multi-stroke phrasing techniques for pen interfaces. Our experiment evaluates several techniques for actively maintaining muscle tension. We use these results to show how muscular tension can reduce the need for selection or tool modes in pen interfaces, and discuss various(More)