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Oxidative stress (OS) and damages due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common causes of injuries to cells and organisms. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases (ND) increases with aging and much of the research involving ROS and OS has emerged from works in this field. This text reviews some recent published articles about the role of(More)
We investigated whether there exists a hierarchical vulnerability of subcortical structures with respect to the severity of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A total of 236 subjects (179 with AD and 57 with normal cognition) underwent 1.5-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The volumes of the five subcortical structures (amygdala, thalamus, putamen, globus pallidus,(More)
IMPORTANCE Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and Alzheimer disease are significant causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly. However, few studies have evaluated the relationship between CVD and β-amyloid burden in living humans or their synergistic effects on cognition. Thus, there is a need for better understanding of mild cognitive impairment (MCI)(More)
OBJECTIVE Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are a neuroimaging marker of small vessel disease (SVD) with relevance for understanding disease mechanisms in cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment, and normal aging. It is hypothesized that lobar CMBs are due to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and deep CMBs are due to subcortical ischemic SVD. We tested this(More)
Subcortical vascular dementia (SVaD), one of common causes of dementia, has concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology in over 30%, termed "mixed dementia". Identifying mixed dementia from SVaD is important because potential amyloid-targeted therapies may be effective for treatment in mixed dementia. The purpose of this study was to discriminate mixed(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the independent effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) pathologies on brain structural changes and cognition. METHODS Amyloid burden (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB] retention ratio), CVD markers (volume of white matter hyperintensities [WMH] and number of lacunae), and structural changes (cortical(More)
OBJECTIVE Because the signs associated with dementia due to Alzheimer disease (AD) can be heterogeneous, the goal of this study was to use 3-dimensional MRI to examine the various patterns of cortical atrophy that can be associated with dementia of AD type, and to investigate whether AD dementia can be categorized into anatomical subtypes. METHODS(More)
The adolescent brain, with ongoing prefrontal maturation, may be more vulnerable to drug use-related neurotoxic changes as compared to the adult brain. We investigated whether the use of methamphetamine (MA), a highly addictive psychostimulant, during adolescence affect metabolic and cognitive functions of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In adolescent(More)
PURPOSE To investigate seizure frequency in relation to menstrual cycles and seizure exacerbations with respect to various clinical factors in women with epilepsy. METHODS The authors prospectively evaluated premenopausal women with epilepsy aged 15-44. Catamenial epilepsy was defined as seizure frequency during the perimenstrual (C1), periovulatory (C2)(More)
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) has been shown to progress more rapidly than late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). However, no studies have compared the topography of brain volume reduction over time. The purpose of this 3-year longitudinal study was to compare EOAD and LOAD in terms of their rates of decline in cognitive testing and topography of(More)