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The upper cervical corticospinal tract was transected on one side in adult rats. A suspension of ensheathing cells cultured from adult rat olfactory bulb was injected into the lesion site. This induced unbranched, elongative growth of the cut corticospinal axons. The axons grew through the transplant and continued to regenerate into the denervated caudal(More)
Precisely localized focal stereotaxic electrolytic lesions were made in the corticospinal tract at the level of the first to second cervical segments in the adult rat. This consistently destroyed all central nervous tissue elements (axons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and microvessels) in a highly circumscribed area. In a group of these rats(More)
Several recent publications describe remarkably promising effects of transplanting olfactory ensheathing cells as a potential future method to repair human spinal cord injuries. But why were cells from the nose transplanted into the spinal cord? What are olfactory ensheathing cells, and how might they produce these beneficial effects? And more generally,(More)
It is widely accepted that the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate axons. In addition to physical or molecular barriers presented by glial scarring at the lesion site, it has been suggested that the normal myelinated CNS environment contains potent growth inhibitors or lacks growth-promoting molecules. Here we investigate(More)
Horizontal slices which included the entorhinal area in continuity with the hippocampus were taken from the ventral levels of the cerebral hemispheres of rat pups from two age groups, from the 6th to the 8th postnatal days ('young') and the 12th to the 15th days ('old'). The slices were divided into an entorhinal part and a hippocampal part (which consisted(More)
The neurosensory cells of the primary olfactory and vomeronasal projections are in a state of continuous replacement throughout adult life. Since their axons form synaptic terminals with neurons in the olfactory and accessory olfactory bulbs, this system is an apparent exception to the rule that peripheral axons cannot grow into the central nervous system(More)
The present study tests whether lesions small enough to allow the rapid reestablishment of a normally aligned tract glial framework would provide a permissive environment for the regeneration of cut adult CNS axons. We made penetrating microlesions which cut a narrow beam of axons in the adult rat cingulum, but caused minimal damage to the tract glial(More)
The ensheathing cells of the olfactory nerves are arranged end-to-end to form a continuous channel enclosing the olfactory axons from their origin in the olfactory mucosa to their termination in the olfactory bulb. On their outer surface, the olfactory ensheathing cell channels have a basal lamina and an outer encirclement of olfactory nerve fibroblasts. We(More)
One of the most devastating effects of damage to the upper spinal cord is the loss of the ability to breathe; patients suffering these injuries can be kept alive only with assisted ventilation. No known method for repairing these injuries exists. We report here the return of supraspinal control of breathing and major improvements in climbing after the(More)