Geoffrey M. Rubin

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We derive an expectation maximization algorithm for maximum-likelihood training of substitution rate matrices from multiple sequence alignments. The algorithm can be used to train hidden substitution models, where the structural context of a residue is treated as a hidden variable that can evolve over time. We used the algorithm to train hidden substitution(More)
It is now apparent that in men and in postmenopausal women, estrogens have important physiological and pathophysiological roles. However, importantly, these actions are at a local level, namely paracrine, autocrine, and even 'intracrine' rather than endocrine in the classical sense. Thus for example local estrogen biosynthesis in the bones of men plays a(More)
Natural (human) and experimental (mouse) models of estrogen insufficiency have revealed hitherto unexpected roles for estrogens in both males and females. In postmenopausal women, and in men, estrogen no longer has a major role as a circulating hormone, but rather it functions locally as a paracrine or even 'intracrine' factor in tissue sites where it is(More)
The widespread use of statins for hypercholesterolemia has uncovered pleiotropic anti-inflammatory properties that were unexpected based on the drugs' original design; yet, mechanisms for these protective actions remain uncertain. In this study lovastatin triggered biosynthesis of the anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator 15-epi-lipoxin A(4)(More)
A topic of recent interest in the retail financial sector has been the growth of credit unions or " pure cooperatives ". Past credit union researchers built mathematical models of credit union operations. These models identified important operating characteristics but were modeled under assumptions of static operating environments. The model presented in(More)
This paper and the following one describe the effects of L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) (after 3 intracisternal injections of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (DHT], fenfluramine (FF), p-chloroamphetamine (PCA) and drug combinations on (i) brain regional amine concentration (HPLC with LEC) and serotonin S-1 receptor binding; and (ii) 'serotonergic' behaviors in the(More)
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