Geoffrey L Smith

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Viral immune evasion strategies target key aspects of the host antiviral response. Recently, it has been recognized that Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a role in innate defense against viruses. Here, we define the function of the vaccinia virus (VV) protein A46R and show it inhibits intracellular signalling by a range of TLRs. TLR signalling is triggered(More)
Poxviruses employ many strategies to evade and neutralize the host immune response. In this study, we have identified two vaccinia virus ORFs, termed A46R and A52R, that share amino acid sequence similarity with the Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain, a motif that defines the IL-1/Toll-like receptor (TLR) superfamily of receptors, which have a key role in(More)
The vaccinia virus (VV) N1L gene encodes a protein of 14 kDa that was identified previously in the concentrated supernatant of virus-infected cells. Here we show that the protein is present predominantly (>90%) within cells rather than in the culture supernatant and it exists as a non-glycosylated, non-covalent homodimer. The N1L protein present in the(More)
The evolutionary relationships of 26 sequenced members of the poxvirus family have been investigated by comparing their genome organization and gene content and by using DNA and protein sequences for phylogenetic analyses. The central region of the genome of chordopoxviruses (ChPVs) is highly conserved in gene content and arrangement, except for some gene(More)
Vaccinia virus produces four different types of virion from each infected cell called intracellular mature virus (IMV), intracellular enveloped virus (IEV), cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). These virions have different abundance, structure, location and roles in the virus life-cycle. Here, the formation and(More)
The IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex is a key regulator of signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. It therefore represents a major target for the development of anti-inflammatory therapeutic drugs and may be targeted by pathogens seeking to diminish the host(More)
Vaccinia virus gene B15R is shown to encode an abundant, secretory glycoprotein that functions as a soluble interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor. This IL-1 receptor has novel specificity since, in contrast with cellular counterparts, it binds only IL-1 beta and not IL-1 alpha or the natural competitor IL-1 receptor antagonist. The vaccinia IL-1 beta receptor is(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial in the innate immune response to pathogens, in that they recognize and respond to pathogen associated molecular patterns, which leads to activation of intracellular signaling pathways and altered gene expression. Vaccinia virus (VV), the poxvirus used to vaccinate against smallpox, encodes proteins that antagonize(More)
The threat of avian influenza A (H5N1) infection in humans remains a global health concern. Current influenza vaccines stimulate antibody responses against the surface glycoproteins but are ineffective against strains that have undergone significant antigenic variation. An alternative approach is to stimulate pre-existing memory T cells established by(More)
Vaccinia virus (VACV) is the vaccine that was used to eradicate smallpox and is being developed as a recombinant vaccine for other pathogens. Removal of genes encoding immunomodulatory proteins expressed by VACV may enhance virus immunogenicity and improve its potential as a vaccine. Protein A41 is a candidate for removal, having sequence similarity to the(More)