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Detailed knowledge of the anatomy and connectivity pattern of cortico-basal ganglia circuits is essential to an understanding of abnormal cortical function and pathophysiology associated with a wide range of neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases. We aim to study the spatial extent and topography of human basal ganglia connectivity in vivo.(More)
This paper proposes and tests a technique for imaging orientationally invariant indices of axon diameter and density in white matter using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Such indices potentially provide more specific markers of white matter microstructure than standard indices from diffusion tensor imaging. Orientational invariance allows for(More)
Recent electrophysiological investigations of the auditory system in primates along with functional neuroimaging studies of auditory perception in humans have suggested there are two pathways arising from the primary auditory cortex. In the primate brain, a 'ventral' pathway is thought to project anteriorly from the primary auditory cortex to prefrontal(More)
MRI methods are widely used to follow the pathological evolution of multiple sclerosis in life and its modification by treatment. To date, measures of the number and volume of macroscopically visible lesions have been studied most often. These MRI outcomes have demonstrated clear treatment effects but without a commensurate clinical benefit, suggesting that(More)
Although there is an emerging consensus that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are involved in semantic memory, it is currently unclear which specific parts of this region are implicated in semantic representation. Answers to this question are difficult to glean from the existing literature for 3 reasons: 1) lesions of relevant patient groups tend to(More)
A method is presented for determining paths of anatomical connection between regions of the brain using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor information. Level set theory, applied using fast marching methods, is used to generate three-dimensional time of arrival maps, from which connection paths between brain regions may be identified. The method is(More)
PURPOSE To establish a general methodology for quantifying streamline-based diffusion fiber tracking methods in terms of probability of connection between points and/or regions. MATERIALS AND METHODS The commonly used streamline approach is adapted to exploit the uncertainty in the orientation of the principal direction of diffusion defined for each image(More)
A methodology is presented for estimation of a probability density function of cerebral fibre orientations when one or two fibres are present in a voxel. All data are acquired on a clinical MR scanner, using widely available acquisition techniques. The method models measurements of water diffusion in a single fibre by a Gaussian density function and in(More)
Functional lateralization is a feature of human brain function, most apparent in the typical left-hemisphere specialization for language. A number of anatomical and imaging studies have examined whether structural asymmetries underlie this functional lateralization. We combined functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with tractography to(More)
Rapid T(1)-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo (GRE) data sets were acquired in the abdomen of 23 cancer patients during a total of 113 separate visits to allow dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) analysis of tumor microvasculature. The arterial input function (AIF) was measured in each patient at each visit using an automated AIF extraction method(More)