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CONTEXT Many health plans have instituted more cost sharing to discourage use of more expensive pharmaceuticals and to reduce drug spending. OBJECTIVE To determine how changes in cost sharing affect use of the most commonly used drug classes among the privately insured and the chronically ill. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective US study(More)
Bulbar strictures are most often idiopathic, but may also be due to gonococcal infection, direct trauma (straddle injury), or as complication of prostatic irradiation for cancer. Most strictures are treated by general-practice urologists with dilation or direct-vision internal urethrotomy (DVIU), although these have less than a 50% durable cure rate as(More)
Recent innovations in biomedicine seem poised to revolutionize medical practice. At the same time, disease and disability are increasing among younger populations. This paper considers how these confluent trends will affect the elderly's health status and health care spending over the next thirty years. Because healthier people live longer, cumulative(More)
or saline bladder wash is performed for cytology. A number of newer tests, including fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), NMP22, and BTA stat, are now available to augment the diagnostic ability of urine/ bladder wash cytology. Many of these newer tests have higher sensitivity but lower specificity than routine cytology and are not universally(More)
through widespread prostate specific antigen testing. In addition, the use of androgen replacement has increased in recent years, as testosterone is often equated with youth, vitality, strength, and sexual performance (4). Neither ED nor PD is life-threatening. However, these conditions may result in withdrawal from sexual intimacy, reduced quality of life,(More)
for approximately 5% to 10% of all cases. They are clearly associated with bacterial infection and a urine culture that grows uropathogens. Acute prostatitis is characterized by the sudden onset of fever and dysuria, whereas chronic bacterial prostatitis typically involves relapsing episodes of urinary tract infections, usually with the same organism seen(More)
  • Hans G Pohl, Geoffrey F Joyce, Matthew Wise, Bartley G Cilento, Mph Bartley, G Cilento
  • 2006
When VUR is suspected, radiographic assessment of the lower urinary tract is warranted. Traditionally, VCUG has been performed as the initial modality to diagnose VUR in infants with prenatally detected hydronephrosis, children under five years of age with a documented urinary tract infection (UTI), and children with a febrile UTI, regardless of age. An RNC(More)
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