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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the world's earliest domesticated and most important crop plants. It is diploid with a large haploid genome of 5.1 gigabases (Gb). Here we present an integrated and ordered physical, genetic and functional sequence resource that describes the barley gene-space in a structured whole-genome context. We developed a physical(More)
Endo-(1,4)-β-glucanase (cellulase) glycosyl hydrolase GH9 enzymes have been implicated in several aspects of cell wall metabolism in higher plants, including cellulose biosynthesis and degradation, modification of other wall polysaccharides that contain contiguous (1,4)-β-glucosyl residues, and wall loosening during cell elongation. The(More)
Arabidopsis was transformed with double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) constructs designed to silence three putative callose synthase genes: GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE5 (GSL5), GSL6, and GSL11. Both wound callose and papillary callose were absent in lines transformed with GSL5 dsRNAi and in a corresponding sequence-indexed GSL5 T-DNA insertion line but were(More)
A characteristic feature of grasses and commercially important cereals is the presence of (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucans in their cell walls. We have used comparative genomics to link a major quantitative trait locus for (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucan content in barley grain to a cluster of cellulose synthase-like CslF genes in rice. After insertion of rice CslF genes(More)
Family GH16 glycoside hydrolases can be assigned to five subgroups according to their substrate specificities, including xyloglucan transglucosylases/hydrolases (XTHs), (1,3)-beta-galactanases, (1,4)-beta-galactanases/kappa-carrageenases, "nonspecific" (1,3/1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases, and (1,3;1,4)-beta-D-glucan endohydrolases. A structured(More)
Two beta-glucan exohydrolases of apparent molecular masses 69,000 and 71,000 Da have been purified from extracts of 8-day germinated barley grains and are designated isoenzymes ExoI and ExoII, respectively. The sequences of their first 52 NH2-terminal amino acids show 64% positional identity. Both enzymes hydrolyze the (1,3)-beta-glucan, laminarin, but also(More)
To explain the low levels of starch, high levels of (1,3;1,4)-β-glucan, and thick cell walls in grains of Brachypodium distachyon L. relative to those in other Pooideae, aspects of grain development were compared between B. distachyon and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Cell proliferation, cell expansion, and endoreduplication were reduced in B. distachyon(More)
The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and(More)
About 12,000 years ago in the Near East, humans began the transition from hunter-gathering to agriculture-based societies. Barley was a founder crop in this process, and the most important steps in its domestication were mutations in two adjacent, dominant, and complementary genes, through which grains were retained on the inflorescence at maturity,(More)
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although(More)