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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the world's earliest domesticated and most important crop plants. It is diploid with a large haploid genome of 5.1 gigabases (Gb). Here we present an integrated and ordered physical, genetic and functional sequence resource that describes the barley gene-space in a structured whole-genome context. We developed a physical(More)
During germination of barley grains, the cell walls of the starchy endosperm are degraded by (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanases (EC secreted from the aleurone and scutellar tissues. The complete sequence of the aleurone (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme II comprises 306 amino acids and was determined by sequencing nine tryptic peptides (110(More)
Two 1,3;1,4-beta-glucan endohydrolases have been purified from extracts of germinating barley by ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Both enzymes are monomeric, basic proteins. Enzyme I has a molecular weight of 28000 and an isoelectric point of 8.5, while enzyme II has a molecular weight of 33000 and an(More)
Two beta-glucan exohydrolases of apparent molecular masses 69,000 and 71,000 Da have been purified from extracts of 8-day germinated barley grains and are designated isoenzymes ExoI and ExoII, respectively. The sequences of their first 52 NH2-terminal amino acids show 64% positional identity. Both enzymes hydrolyze the (1,3)-beta-glucan, laminarin, but also(More)
Arabidopsis was transformed with double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) constructs designed to silence three putative callose synthase genes: GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE5 (GSL5), GSL6, and GSL11. Both wound callose and papillary callose were absent in lines transformed with GSL5 dsRNAi and in a corresponding sequence-indexed GSL5 T-DNA insertion line but were(More)
A characteristic feature of grasses and commercially important cereals is the presence of (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucans in their cell walls. We have used comparative genomics to link a major quantitative trait locus for (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucan content in barley grain to a cluster of cellulose synthase-like CslF genes in rice. After insertion of rice CslF genes(More)
BACKGROUND Cell walls of the starchy endosperm and young vegetative tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare) contain high levels of (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucans. The (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucans are hydrolysed during wall degradation in germinated grain and during wall loosening in elongating coleoptiles. These key processes of plant development are mediated by(More)
Sequence data from cDNA and genomic clones, coupled with analyses of expressed sequence tag databases, indicate that the CesA (cellulose synthase) gene family from barley (Hordeum vulgare) has at least eight members, which are distributed across the genome. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction has been used to determine the relative abundance of mRNA(More)
Two genes encode (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC isoenzymes in barley. A gene for isoenzyme El has been isolated from a barley genomic library and the nucleotide sequence of a 4643 by fragment determined. The gene is located on barley chromosome 5 while the gene for (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucanase isoenzyme EII is carried on chromosome 1. The(More)
A beta-glucosidase, designated isoenzyme betaII, from germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) hydrolyzes aryl-beta-glucosides and shares a high level of amino acid sequence similarity with beta-glucosidases of diverse origin. It releases glucose from the non-reducing termini of cellodextrins with catalytic efficiency factors, kcat/Km, that increase(More)