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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the world's earliest domesticated and most important crop plants. It is diploid with a large haploid genome of 5.1 gigabases (Gb). Here we present an integrated and ordered physical, genetic and functional sequence resource that describes the barley gene-space in a structured whole-genome context. We developed a physical(More)
The evolutionary relationships of two classes of plant beta-glucan endohydrolases have been examined by comparison of their substrate specificities, their three-dimensional conformations and the structural features of their corresponding genes. These comparative studies provide compelling evidence that the (1-->3)-beta-glucanases and(More)
Two mutant lines of barley, Risø 17 and Notch-2, were found to accumulate phytoglycogen in the grain. Like the sugary mutants of maize and rice, these phytoglycogen-accumulating mutants of barley lack isoamylase activity in the developing endosperm. The mutants were shown to be allelic, and to have lesions in the isoamylase gene, isa1 that account for the(More)
Higher plants resist the forces of gravity and powerful lateral forces through the cumulative strength of the walls that surround individual cells. These walls consist mainly of cellulose, noncellulosic polysaccharides and lignin, in proportions that depend upon the specific functions of the cell and its stage of development. Spatially and temporally(More)
Cell wall polysaccharides in developing barley coleoptiles were examined using acetic acid-nitric acid extraction, alditol acetate and methylation analyses and enzymatic digestion. The coleoptile cell wall from imbibed grain was rich in pectic polysaccharides (30 mol%), arabinoxylan (25 mol%), cellulose (25 mol%) and xyloglucan (6 mol%), but contained only(More)
An alpha-l-arabinofuranosidase and a beta-d-xylosidase, designated ARA-I and XYL, respectively, have been purified about 1,000-fold from extracts of 5-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, ion exchange chromatography, chromatofocusing, and size-exclusion chromatography. The ARA-I has an apparent(More)
Cellulose synthase-like CslF genes have been implicated in the biosynthesis of (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucans, which are major cell wall constituents in grasses and cereals. Seven CslF genes from barley (Hordeum vulgare) can be divided into two classes on the basis of intron-exon arrangements. Four of the HvCslF genes have been mapped to a single locus on barley(More)
Endo-(1,4)-β-glucanase (cellulase) glycosyl hydrolase GH9 enzymes have been implicated in several aspects of cell wall metabolism in higher plants, including cellulose biosynthesis and degradation, modification of other wall polysaccharides that contain contiguous (1,4)-β-glucosyl residues, and wall loosening during cell elongation. The(More)
Barley endosperm begins development as a syncytium where numerous nuclei line the perimeter of a large vacuolated central cell. Between 3 and 6 days after pollination (DAP) the multinucleate syncytium is cellularized by the centripetal synthesis of cell walls at the interfaces of nuclear cytoplasmic domains between individual nuclei. Here we report the(More)