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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is among the world's earliest domesticated and most important crop plants. It is diploid with a large haploid genome of 5.1 gigabases (Gb). Here we present an integrated and ordered physical, genetic and functional sequence resource that describes the barley gene-space in a structured whole-genome context. We developed a physical(More)
Endo-(1,4)-β-glucanase (cellulase) glycosyl hydrolase GH9 enzymes have been implicated in several aspects of cell wall metabolism in higher plants, including cellulose biosynthesis and degradation, modification of other wall polysaccharides that contain contiguous (1,4)-β-glucosyl residues, and wall loosening during cell elongation. The(More)
Arabidopsis was transformed with double-stranded RNA interference (dsRNAi) constructs designed to silence three putative callose synthase genes: GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE5 (GSL5), GSL6, and GSL11. Both wound callose and papillary callose were absent in lines transformed with GSL5 dsRNAi and in a corresponding sequence-indexed GSL5 T-DNA insertion line but were(More)
A characteristic feature of grasses and commercially important cereals is the presence of (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucans in their cell walls. We have used comparative genomics to link a major quantitative trait locus for (1,3;1,4)-beta-d-glucan content in barley grain to a cluster of cellulose synthase-like CslF genes in rice. After insertion of rice CslF genes(More)
The elongating maize internode represents a useful system for following development of cell walls in vegetative cells in the Poaceae family. Elongating internodes can be divided into four developmental zones, namely the basal intercalary meristem, above which are found the elongation, transition and maturation zones. Cells in the basal meristem and(More)
Arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases (AXAHs) are family GH51 enzymes that have been implicated in the removal of arabinofuranosyl residues from the (1,4)-β-xylan backbone of heteroxylans. Five genes encoding barley AXAHs range in size from 4.6 kb to 7.1 kb and each contains 16 introns. The barley HvAXAH genes map to chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A small(More)
Crystals of a beta-glucan exohydrolase purified from extracts of young barley seedlings have been obtained by vapour diffusion in the presence of ammonium sulfate and polyethylene glycol. The enzyme exhibits broad substrate specificity against (1,3)-, (1,3;1,4)- and (1,3;1,6)-beta-glucans, and related oligosaccharides. Crystal dimensions of up to 0.8 x 0.4(More)
Non-starch polysaccharides (NSPs) have many health benefits, including immunomodulatory activity, lowering serum cholesterol, a faecal bulking effect, enhanced absorption of certain minerals, prebiotic effects and the amelioration of type II diabetes. The principal components of the NSP in cereal grains are (1,3;1,4)-β-glucans and arabinoxylans. Although(More)
Fucoidans—the bioactive and structurally diverse polysaccharides from brown algae—have potential applications in the health industry, but development has been hampered by difficulties in controlling the structure, purity, and consistency of the product. Importantly, the extraction technique affects the nature of the product by preferentially extracting(More)
Cyclotides are peptides from plants of the Rubiaceae and Violaceae families that have the unusual characteristic of a macrocylic backbone. They are further characterized by their incorporation of a cystine knot in which two disulfides, along with the intervening backbone residues, form a ring through which a third disulfide is threaded. The cyclotides have(More)