Geoffrey A. Parker

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The view is examined that the adaptive value of conventional aspects of fighting behaviour is for assessment of relat~ve KMP (resource holding oower) of the combatants. Outcomes o t aggressive disputes should be decided by each individual's fitness budget avaiiltble for expenditure during a fight (determined by the fitness difference between adoption of(More)
Fishes show one of the widest ranges of sperm competition intensity of any animal group. Here we present a comparative study whose aim is to investigate the effect of relative intensity of sperm competition on investment in spermatogenesis and the number and size of sperm produced. We find that both the gonadosomatic index (GSI = [gonad weight/body weight](More)
Sperm competition occurs when sperm from more than one male compete for fertilizations. This form of post-copulatory sexual selection is recognized as a significant and widespread force in the evolution of male reproductive biology and as a key determinant of differential male reproductive success. Despite its importance, however, detailed mechanisms of(More)
  • G A Parker
  • Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society…
  • 2006
Sexual conflict is a conflict between the evolutionary interests of individuals of the two sexes. The sexes can have different trait optima but this need not imply conflict if their optima can be attained simultaneously. Conflict requires an interaction between males and females (e.g. mating or parental care), such that the optimal outcomes for each sex(More)
Although positive reciprocity (reciprocal altruism) has been a focus of interest in evolutionary biology, negative reciprocity (retaliatory infliction of fitness reduction) has been largely ignored. In social animals, retaliatory aggression is common, individuals often punish other group members that infringe their interests, and punishment can cause(More)
We review the significance of two forms of sexual conflict (different evolutionary interests of the two sexes) for genetic differentiation of populations and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Conflicting selection on the alleles at a single locus can occur in males and females if the sexes have different optima for a trait, and there are pleiotropic(More)
We outline and develop current theory on how inherent genetic conflicts of interest between the various family members can affect the flow of parental investment from parents to offspring, and discuss the problems for empirical testing that this generates. The parental investment pattern realized in nature reflects the simultaneous resolution of all the(More)
Sperm competition was identified in 1970 as a pervasive selective force in post-copulatory sexual selection that occurs when the ejaculates of different males compete to fertilise a given set of ova. Since then, sperm competition has been much studied both empirically and theoretically. Because sperm competition often favours large ejaculates, an important(More)
Reproductive males face a trade-off between expenditure on precopulatory male-male competition--increasing the number of females that they secure as mates--and sperm competition--increasing their fertilization success with those females. Previous sperm allocation models have focused on scramble competition in which males compete by searching for mates and(More)
We consider optimal growth of larval stages in complex parasite life cycles where there is no constraint because of host immune responses. Our model predicts an individual's asymptotic size in its intermediate host, with and without competition from conspecific larvae. We match observed variations in larval growth patterns in pseudophyllid cestodes with(More)