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Hebb's rule (1949) states that learning and memory are based on modifications of synaptic strength among neurons that are simultaneously active. This implies that enhanced synaptic coincidence detection would lead to better learning and memory. If the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor, a synaptic coincidence detector, acts as a graded switch for memory(More)
Silent synapses abound in the young brain, representing an early step in the pathway of experience-dependent synaptic development. Discovered amidst the debate over whether long-term potentiation reflects a presynaptic or a postsynaptic modification, silent synapses--which in the hippocampal CA1 subfield are characterized by the presence of NMDA receptors(More)
Small diameter dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which include cells that transmit nociceptive information into the spinal cord, are known to express functional kainate receptors. It is well established that exposure to kainate will depolarize C-fiber afferents arising from these cells. Although the role of kainate receptors on sensory afferents is(More)
Silent synapses form between some primary sensory afferents and dorsal horn neurons in the spinal cord. Molecular mechanisms for activation or conversion of silent synapses to conducting synapses are unknown. Serotonin can trigger activation of silent synapses in dorsal horn neurons by recruiting AMPA receptors. AMPA-receptor subunits GluR2 and GluR3(More)
In the spinal cord dorsal horn, excitatory sensory fibers terminate adjacent to interneuron terminals. Here, we show that kainate (KA) receptor activation triggered action potential-independent release of GABA and glycine from dorsal horn interneurons. This release was transient, because KA receptors desensitized, and it required Na+ entry and Ca2+ channel(More)
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors contribute to many brain functions. We studied the effect of forebrain-targeted overexpression of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B on the response of mice to tissue injury and inflammation. Transgenic mice exhibited prominent NR2B expression and enhanced NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic responses in two pain-related(More)
We used the ratioable fluorescent dye mag-fura-5 to measure intracellular free Zn2+ ([Zn2+]i) in cultured neocortical neurons exposed to neurotoxic concentrations of Zn2+ in concert with depolarization or glutamate receptor activation and identified four routes of Zn2+ entry. Neurons exposed to extracellular Zn2+ plus high K+ responded with a peak cell body(More)
OBJECTIVES In Alzheimer disease (AD), mounting evidence points to a greater role for synaptic loss than neuronal loss. Supporting this notion, multiple postmortem studies have demonstrated that the hippocampal CA1 apical neuropil is one of the earliest sites of pathology, exhibiting tau aggregates and then atrophy before there is substantial loss of the CA1(More)
Presynaptic kainate (KA) receptors regulate synaptic transmission at both excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Previous work has demonstrated pharmacological differences between the KA receptors expressed by rat dorsal horn neurons and those expressed by the primary afferent sensory neurons that innervate the dorsal horn. Here,(More)
OBJECTIVES Using high-resolution structural MRI, we endeavored to study the relationships among APOE ε4, hippocampal subfield and stratal anatomy, and episodic memory. METHODS Using a cross-sectional design, we studied 11 patients with Alzheimer disease dementia, 14 patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, and 14 age-matched healthy controls with(More)