Geoffrey A. Codd

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The cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin-LR, inhibits protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) with Ki values below 0.1 nM. Protein phosphatase 2B is inhibited 1000-fold less potently, while six other phosphatases and eight protein kinases tested are unaffected. These results are strikingly similar to those obtained with the tumour promoter okadaic acid. We(More)
Cyanobacteria can generate molecules hazardous to human health, but production of the known cyanotoxins is taxonomically sporadic. For example, members of a few genera produce hepatotoxic microcystins, whereas production of hepatotoxic nodularins appears to be limited to a single genus. Production of known neurotoxins has also been considered(More)
This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic(More)
Increasing concern over the presence of microcystins (cyanobacterial/blue-green algal hepatotoxins) in water supplies has emphasized the need for a suitable analytical method. As many microcystins are known to exist, a method was developed that permits the determination of numerous variants by a single procedure. The method involves filtration to separate(More)
Cyanobacterial toxins have adverse effects on mammals, birds and fish and are being increasingly recognised as a potent stress factor and health hazard factor in aquatic ecosystems. Microcystins, cyclic heptapeptides and a main group of the cyanotoxins are mainly retained within the producer cells during cyanobacterial bloom development. However, these(More)
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) can produce a variety of toxins including hepatotoxins e.g. microcystins, and endotoxins such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The combined effects of such toxins on fish are little known. This study examines the activities of microsomal (m) and soluble (s) glutathione S-transferases (GST) from embryos of the zebra fish, Danio(More)
The neurotoxic amino acid, beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine, was found to be present in all of 12 analysed samples of cyanobacterial blooms, scums and mats, which had been collected in seven years between 1990 and 2004 inclusive and stored at -20 degrees C. BMAA identification was by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and by(More)
BACKGROUND After a drought in February, 1996, all 126 patients in a haemodialysis unit in Caruaru, north-east Brazil, developed signs and symptoms of acute neurotoxicity and subacute hepatotoxicity following the use of water from a lake with massive growth of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). 60 patients died. METHODS Besides recording clinical details(More)
The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been associated with certain forms of progressive neurodegenerative disease, including sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Reports of BMAA in cyanobacterial blooms from lakes, reservoirs, and other water resources continue to be made by investigators in a(More)
Many cyanobacteria produce microcystins, hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptides that can affect animals and humans. The effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) on microcystin production by Microcystis strain PCC 7806 were studied in continuous cultures. Microcystis strain PCC 7806 was grown under PAR intensities between 10 and 403 micro mol of(More)