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The cyclic heptapeptide, microcystin-LR, inhibits protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) with Ki values below 0.1 nM. Protein phosphatase 2B is inhibited 1000-fold less potently, while six other phosphatases and eight protein kinases tested are unaffected. These results are strikingly similar to those obtained with the tumour promoter okadaic acid. We(More)
Cyanobacteria can generate molecules hazardous to human health, but production of the known cyanotoxins is taxonomically sporadic. For example, members of a few genera produce hepatotoxic microcystins, whereas production of hepatotoxic nodularins appears to be limited to a single genus. Production of known neurotoxins has also been considered(More)
This paper reviews the occurrence and properties of cyanobacterial toxins, with reference to the recognition and management of the human health risks which they may present. Mass populations of toxin-producing cyanobacteria in natural and controlled waterbodies include blooms and scums of planktonic species, and mats and biofilms of benthic species. Toxic(More)
Increasing concern over the presence of microcystins (cyanobacterial/blue-green algal hepatotoxins) in water supplies has emphasized the need for a suitable analytical method. As many microcystins are known to exist, a method was developed that permits the determination of numerous variants by a single procedure. The method involves filtration to separate(More)
Cyanobacterial toxins have adverse effects on mammals, birds and fish and are being increasingly recognised as a potent stress factor and health hazard factor in aquatic ecosystems. Microcystins, cyclic heptapeptides and a main group of the cyanotoxins are mainly retained within the producer cells during cyanobacterial bloom development. However, these(More)
Veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War have been reported to have an increased incidence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared to personnel who were not deployed. An excess of ALS cases was diagnosed in Gulf War veterans younger than 45 years of age. Increased ALS among Gulf War veterans appears to be an outbreak time-limited to the decade following(More)
BACKGROUND After a drought in February, 1996, all 126 patients in a haemodialysis unit in Caruaru, north-east Brazil, developed signs and symptoms of acute neurotoxicity and subacute hepatotoxicity following the use of water from a lake with massive growth of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). 60 patients died. METHODS Besides recording clinical details(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxic alkaloid produced by several genera of freshwater cyanobacteria. This compound has been implicated in outbreaks of human sickness and the death of domestic and wild animals. Given that several of the cyanobacterial genera known to produce CYN are common components of the phytoplankton of freshwaters including aquaculture(More)
Immunoassays are increasingly used to investigate the production, properties and fates of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxic microcystins in vitro and in vivo. Responses of an ELISA immunoassay to microcystins have been determined using the authentic toxin antigen, microcystin-LR, and conjugation products between the toxin and glutathione, cysteine-glycine and(More)