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AIMS Corneal nerve morphology and corneal sensation threshold have recently been explored as potential surrogate markers for the evaluation of diabetic neuropathy. We present the baseline findings of the 'Longitudinal Assessment of Neuropathy in type 1 Diabetes using novel ophthalmic Markers'(LANDMark) study. METHODS The LANDMark study is a 4-year,(More)
AIMS To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fibre layer thickness and peripheral neuropathy in patients with Type 2 diabetes, particularly in those who are at higher risk of foot ulceration. METHODS Global and sectoral retinal nerve fibre layer thicknesses were measured at 3.45 mm diameter around the optic nerve head using optical coherence(More)
Some people who experience migraine demonstrate reduced visual contrast sensitivity that is measurable between migraines. Contrast sensitivity loss to low spatial frequency gratings has been previously attributed to possible impairment of magnocellular pathway function. This study measured contrast sensitivity using low spatial frequency targets (0.25-4(More)
PURPOSE To explore the effects of glaucoma and aging on low-spatial-frequency contrast sensitivity by using tests designed to assess performance of either the magnocellular (M) or parvocellular (P) visual pathways. METHODS Contrast sensitivity was measured for spatial frequencies of 0.25 to 2 cyc/deg by using a published steady- and pulsed-pedestal(More)
We have compared visual search under conditions that tend to isolate the magnocellular, parvocellular and koniocellular channels of the human visual system. We used isoluminant red-green stimuli that do not modulate short-wavelength sensitive (SWS) cones to isolate the parvocellular pathway, isoluminant SWS-cone isolating stimuli to stimulate only the(More)
PURPOSE Arbitrary numbers of corneal confocal microscopy images have been used for analysis of corneal subbasal nerve parameters under the implicit assumption that these are a representative sample of the central corneal nerve plexus. The purpose of this study is to present a technique for quantifying the number of random central corneal images required to(More)
BACKGROUND Psychophysical measurement of the function of individual precortical visual pathways (magnocellular, parvocellular and koniocellular) has enabled the development of sensitive tests for glaucoma and has enhanced understanding of its pathophysiology. Such pathways can be further subdivided into their "On" and "Off" components, which have anatomical(More)
To develop a rapid optimized technique of wide-field imaging of the human corneal subbasal nerve plexus. A dynamic fixation target was developed and, coupled with semiautomated tiling software, a rapid method of capturing and montaging multiple corneal confocal microscopy images was created. To illustrate the utility of this technique, wide-field maps of(More)
Diabetic neuropathy is a significant clinical problem that currently has no effective therapy, and in advanced cases, leads to foot ulceration and lower limb amputation. The accurate detection, characterization and quantification of this condition are important in order to define at-risk patients, anticipate deterioration, monitor progression, and assess(More)
PURPOSE Contrast detection is commonly measured clinically; however, discrimination between contrasts is also important for natural vision. Furthermore, optimal performance requires the visual system to adapt to ambient contrast conditions. Recent studies of primate neurophysiology demonstrate significant retinal involvement in contrast adaptation. This(More)