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Reports suggest that two members of the novel immune-associated nucleotide (Ian) GTPase family, Ian1 and Ian5, play roles in T cell development. We performed real-time PCR analysis of the expression of Ian genes of the rat during T cell maturation, in macrophages and in cell lines. We found that all of the genes were expressed at relatively low levels at(More)
In healthy mammals, maturation of B cells expressing heavy (H) chain immunoglobulin (Ig) without light (L) chain is prevented by chaperone association of the H chain in the endoplasmic reticulum. Camelids are an exception, expressing homodimeric IgGs, an antibody type that to date has not been found in mice or humans. In camelids, immunization with viral(More)
Conversion of monoculture plantations to mixed stands with greater diversity is an important aim of sustainable forest management, and in Britain, this is concentrated on the restoration of native broadleaved woodland on ancient woodland sites that were planted with conifers. Current British guidelines for this restoration have rarely been examined, and(More)
Stimulus transmission across dentine, in conditions such as dentine hypersensitivity, is considered to occur via a hydrodynamic mechanism. This fluid flow in dentine may then induce a mechanoreceptor response in pulpal nerves. However, when fluid flows through a porous structure electrical potentials are also generated. The aim of this study was to develop(More)
Recently, we identified that diverse heavy chain (H-chain)-only IgG is spontaneously produced in light chain (L-chain)-deficient mice (L(-/-) with silenced kappa and lambda loci) despite a block in B cell development. In murine H-chain IgG, the first Cgamma exon, C(H)1, is removed after DNA rearrangement and secreted polypeptides are comparable with(More)
Different representations can reveal different aspects of models. The inverse is also true: namely, that different representations hide different aspects of models. It is, therefore, important for multiple representations of a model to be used during development in order to better understand it. We are developing a categorical data display (CaDaDis) for(More)
Oceanic fronts are key habitats for a diverse range of marine predators, yet how they influence fine-scale foraging behaviour is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the dive behaviour of northern gannets Morus bassanus in relation to shelf-sea fronts. We GPS (global positioning system) tracked 53 breeding birds and examined the relationship between(More)
To accommodate this wide range of users, and to promote the use of cognitive systems, it is essential that tools such as high-level languages and development environments are created to allow the modeler to focus more on the problem domain, and less on the nuances of a particular architecture. This tutorial introduces an integrated development environment(More)
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