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BACKGROUND Studies in Asia, Europe, and the Americas have provided evidence that ambient air pollution may have an adverse effect on birth weight, although results are not consistent. METHODS Average exposure during pregnancy to five common air pollutants was estimated for births in metropolitan Sydney between 1998 and 2000. The effects of pollutant(More)
BACKGROUND Birth defects are a major public health concern as they are the leading cause of neonatal and infant mortality. Observational studies have linked environmental pollution to adverse birth outcomes, including congenital anomalies. This study examined potential associations between ambient air pollution and congenital heart defects and cleft lip or(More)
Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages engulf and destroy invading microorganisms. After internalization, material captured within the phagosomal membrane is destroyed by a complex process of coordinated delivery of digestive enzymes and reactive oxygen species. Several endosomal, lysosomal, and oxidase components expected to participate in(More)
INTRODUCTION Extreme air pollution events due to bushfire smoke and dust storms are expected to increase as a consequence of climate change, yet little has been published about their population health impacts. We examined the association between air pollution events and mortality in Sydney from 1997 to 2004. METHODS Events were defined as days for which(More)
BACKGROUND The effect of individual pollutants and the period(s) during pregnancy when pollutant levels are likely to have most impact on preterm birth is not clear. We evaluated the effect of prenatal exposure to six common urban air pollutants in the Sydney metropolitan area on preterm birth. METHODS We obtained information on all births in metropolitan(More)
We compared mortality of 1,999 outdoor staff working as part of an insecticide application program during 1935-1996 with that of 1,984 outdoor workers not occupationally exposed to insecticides, and with the Australian population. Surviving subjects also completed a morbidity questionnaire. Mortality was significantly higher in both exposed and control(More)
BACKGROUND Little research has investigated the health effects of particulate exposure from bushfires (also called wildfires, biomass fires, or vegetation fires), and these exposures are likely to increase, for several reasons. We investigated associations of daily mortality and hospital admissions with bushfire-derived particulates, compared with(More)
In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the spindle pole body (SPB) is the functional homolog of the mammalian centrosome, responsible for the organization of the tubulin cytoskeleton. Cytoplasmic (astral) microtubules essential for the proper segregation of the nucleus into the daughter cell are attached at the outer plaque on the SPB cytoplasmic face. Previously, it(More)
Type 1 serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP1) are important regulators of many cellular and developmental processes, including glycogen metabolism, muscle contraction, and the cell cycle [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Drosophila and humans both have multiple genes encoding PP1 isoforms [3] [6] [7]; each has one beta and several alpha isoform genes (alpha(1),(More)
BACKGROUND Air pollution in Darwin, Northern Australia, is dominated by smoke from seasonal fires in the surrounding savanna that burn during the dry season from April to November. Our aim was to study the association between particulate matter less than or equal to 10 microns diameter (PM10) and daily emergency hospital admissions for cardio-respiratory(More)