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Technology and business models share a common evolution within the Internet. To enable deployment of the technology within a service environment there is also the need to create a robust and stable business model. This tied destiny of technology and business factors is perhaps most apparent within the area of the interconnection of Internet Service(More)
The Internet continues along a path of seeming inexorable growth, at a rate which has, at a minimum, doubled in size each year. How big it needs to be to meet future demands remains an area of somewhat vague speculation. Of more direct interest in the question of whether the basic elements of the Internet can be extended to meet such levels of future(More)
The monitoring of packets destined for routeable, yet unused, Internet addresses has proved to be a useful technique for measuring a variety of specific Internet phenomenon (e.g., worms, DDoS). In 2004, Pang et al. stepped beyond these targeted uses and provided one of the first generic characterizations of this non-productive traffic, demonstrating both(More)
– The term " VPN, " or Virtual Private Network, has become almost as recklessly used in the networking industry as has "QoS" (Quality of Service) to describe a broad set of problems and "solutions," when the objectives themselves have not been properly articulated. This confusion has resulted in a situation where the popular trade press, industry pundits,(More)
Our studies show that the presence of IL-4 during the response of naive Th cells causes precursors to develop into a population comprised largely of "Th2-like" effectors that secrete IL-4 and IL-5, but little IL-2 or IFN-gamma. We find that the levels of IL-4 and IL-2 determine both the level of effectors developed in response to mitogen or Ag and the(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Prolonged standing in people with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) has the potential to affect a number of health-related areas such as reflex activity, joint range of motion, or well-being. The purpose of this study was to document the patterns of use of prolonged standing and their perceived effects in subjects with SCIs. SUBJECTS The(More)
Despite the predicted exhaustion of unallocated IPv4 addresses between 2012 and 2014, it remains unclear how many current clients can use its successor, IPv6, to access the Internet. We propose a refinement of previous measurement studies that mitigates intrinsic measurement biases, and demonstrate a novel web-based technique using Google ads to perform(More)