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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor and is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells. It is unclear which cells within the tumor mass are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we report that brain tumor stem cells can be identified from adult GBMs. These tumor stem cells form(More)
BACKGROUND Recently, a small population of cancer stem cells in adult and pediatric brain tumors has been identified. Some evidence has suggested that CD133 is a marker for a subset of leukemia and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Especially, CD133 positive cells isolated from human glioblastoma may initiate tumors and represent novel targets for(More)
The primary goal of this Phase I study was to assess the safety and bioactivity of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination to treat patients with glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Adverse events, survival, and cytotoxicity against autologous tumor and tumor-associated antigens were measured. Fourteen patients were thrice(More)
It has recently been demonstrated that malignant glioma cells express certain known tumor-associated antigens, such as HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1. To further determine the possible utilization of these antigens for glioma immunotherapy and as surrogate markers for specific tumor antigen cytotoxicity, we characterized the presence of mRNA and protein(More)
PURPOSE Although the development of immune-based therapies for various cancers including malignant glioma has been heralded with much hope and optimism, objective clinical improvements in most vaccinated cancer patients have not been realized. To broaden the search for vaccine-induced benefits, we examined synergy of vaccines with conventional chemotherapy.(More)
Cancer vaccine trials have failed to yield robust immune-correlated clinical improvements as observed in animal models, fueling controversy over the utility of human cancer vaccines. Therapeutic vaccination represents an intriguing additional therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade 4 glioma), which has a dismal prognosis and treatment response, but(More)
Neural progenitor-like cells have been isolated from bone marrow and the cells have the ability of tracking intracranial tumor. However, the capacity of the cells to deliver molecules for activating immune response against intracranial tumor and the identity of cellular and molecular factors that are involved in such immune responses have yet to be(More)
In shot boundary detection, the key technology is to compute the visual content discontinuity values between consecutive video frames. In this paper, a unified framework is proposed to detect the shot boundaries and extract the keyframes of a shot. Firstly, the Scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) is adopted to compute the visual content discontinuity(More)
Our pilot study using miRNA arrays found that miRNA-29c (miR-29c) is differentially expressed in the paired low-metastatic lung cancer cell line 95C compared to the high-metastatic lung cancer cell line 95D. Bioinformatics analysis shows that integrin β1 and matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) could be important target genes of miR-29c. Therefore, we(More)
Malignant gliomas manifest frequent tumor recurrence after surgical resection and/or other treatment because of their nature of invasiveness and dissemination. The recognized brain tumor-tracking property of neural progenitor/stem cells opened the possibility of targeting malignant brain tumors using neural progenitor/stem cells. We and others have(More)