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BACKGROUND Recently, a small population of cancer stem cells in adult and pediatric brain tumors has been identified. Some evidence has suggested that CD133 is a marker for a subset of leukemia and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Especially, CD133 positive cells isolated from human glioblastoma may initiate tumors and represent novel targets for(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor and is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells. It is unclear which cells within the tumor mass are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we report that brain tumor stem cells can be identified from adult GBMs. These tumor stem cells form(More)
The primary goal of this Phase I study was to assess the safety and bioactivity of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination to treat patients with glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Adverse events, survival, and cytotoxicity against autologous tumor and tumor-associated antigens were measured. Fourteen patients were thrice(More)
Cancer vaccine trials have failed to yield robust immune-correlated clinical improvements as observed in animal models, fueling controversy over the utility of human cancer vaccines. Therapeutic vaccination represents an intriguing additional therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade 4 glioma), which has a dismal prognosis and treatment response, but(More)
Malignant gliomas spawn disseminated microsatellites, which are largely refractory to currently employed therapies, resulting in eventual tumor recurrence and death. The use of tumor-tropic neural stem cells (NSCs) as delivery vehicles for therapeutic gene products represents an attractive strategy specifically focused at treating these residual neoplastic(More)
The rat 9L gliosarcoma is a widely used syngeneic rat brain tumor model that closely simulates glioblastoma multiforme when implanted in vivo. In this study, we sought to isolate and characterize a subgroup of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) from the 9L gliosarcoma cell line, which may represent the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cells. We demonstrate(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, with current treatment remaining palliative. Immunotherapies harness the body's own immune system to target cancers and could overcome the limitations of conventional treatments. One active immunotherapy strategy uses dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination to initiate T-cell-mediated(More)
It has recently been demonstrated that malignant glioma cells express certain known tumor-associated antigens, such as HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1. To further determine the possible utilization of these antigens for glioma immunotherapy and as surrogate markers for specific tumor antigen cytotoxicity, we characterized the presence of mRNA and protein(More)
PURPOSE Although the development of immune-based therapies for various cancers including malignant glioma has been heralded with much hope and optimism, objective clinical improvements in most vaccinated cancer patients have not been realized. To broaden the search for vaccine-induced benefits, we examined synergy of vaccines with conventional chemotherapy.(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extremely malignant brain tumor. To identify new genomic alterations in GBM, genomic DNA of tumor tissue/explants from 55 individuals and 6 GBM cell lines were examined using single nucleotide polymorphism DNA microarray (SNP-Chip). Further gene expression analysis relied on an additional 56 GBM samples. SNP-Chip results(More)