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Recently, a small population of cancer stem cells in adult and pediatric brain tumors has been identified. Some evidence has suggested that CD133 is a marker for a subset of leukemia and glioblastoma cancer stem cells. Especially, CD133 positive cells isolated from human glioblastoma may initiate tumors and represent novel targets for therapeutics. The gene(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common adult primary brain tumor and is comprised of a heterogeneous population of cells. It is unclear which cells within the tumor mass are responsible for tumor initiation and maintenance. In this study, we report that brain tumor stem cells can be identified from adult GBMs. These tumor stem cells form(More)
The primary goal of this Phase I study was to assess the safety and bioactivity of tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccination to treat patients with glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma. Adverse events, survival, and cytotoxicity against autologous tumor and tumor-associated antigens were measured. Fourteen patients were thrice(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, with current treatment remaining palliative. Immunotherapies harness the body's own immune system to target cancers and could overcome the limitations of conventional treatments. One active immunotherapy strategy uses dendritic cell (DC)-based vaccination to initiate T-cell-mediated(More)
Despite dramatic advances in adjuvant therapies, patients with malignant glioma face a bleak prognosis. Because many adjuvant therapies seek to induce glioma apoptosis, strategies that lower thresholds for the induction of apoptosis may improve patient outcomes. Therefore, elucidation of the biological mechanisms that underlie resistance to current(More)
The proteasome plays a pivotal role in controlling cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in a variety of normal and tumor cells. PS-341, a novel boronic acid dipeptide that inhibits 26S proteasome activity, has prominent effects in vitro and in vivo against several solid tumors. We examined its antiproliferation, proapoptotic effects using(More)
It has recently been demonstrated that malignant glioma cells express certain known tumor-associated antigens, such as HER-2, gp100, and MAGE-1. To further determine the possible utilization of these antigens for glioma immunotherapy and as surrogate markers for specific tumor antigen cytotoxicity, we characterized the presence of mRNA and protein(More)
For unknown reasons, advanced age remains a dominant predictor of poor clinical outcome for nearly all cancers. A decrease in the production of T cells by the thymus accompanies normal aging and parallels the age-dependent increase in cancer progression, but the specific impact of immunity on tumor progression in general is unknown. Glioblastoma multiforme(More)
Cancer vaccine trials have failed to yield robust immune-correlated clinical improvements as observed in animal models, fueling controversy over the utility of human cancer vaccines. Therapeutic vaccination represents an intriguing additional therapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM; grade 4 glioma), which has a dismal prognosis and treatment response, but(More)
The rat 9L gliosarcoma is a widely used syngeneic rat brain tumor model that closely simulates glioblastoma multiforme when implanted in vivo. In this study, we sought to isolate and characterize a subgroup of cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs) from the 9L gliosarcoma cell line, which may represent the tumor-initiating subpopulation of cells. We demonstrate(More)