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BACKGROUND & AIMS The 7α-dehydroxylation of primary bile acids (BAs), chenodeoxycholic (CDCA) and cholic acid (CA) into the secondary BAs, lithocholic (LCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), is a key function of the gut microbiota. We aimed at studying the linkage between fecal BAs and gut microbiota in cirrhosis since this could help understand cirrhosis(More)
A method for the synthesis of Delta(22)-beta-muricholic acid (Delta(22)-beta-MCA), (22E)-3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-trihydroxy-5 beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid, and its taurine and glycine conjugates (Delta(22)-beta-muricholyltaurine and Delta(22)-beta-muricholylglycine) is described. The key intermediate, 3 alpha,6 beta,7 beta-triformyloxy-23,24-dinor-5(More)
The chemical synthesis of 3beta,7beta-dihydroxy-5-cholen-24-oic acid, triply conjugated by sulfuric acid at C-3, by N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) at C-7, and by glycine or taurine at C-24, is described. These are unusual, major metabolites of bile acid found to be excreted in the urine of a patient with Niemann-Pick disease type C1. Analogous(More)
Cytosolic sulfotransferase 2B1b (SULT2B1b) catalyzes the sulfation of 3β-hydroxysteroids and functions as a selective cholesterol and oxysterol sulfotransferase. Activation of liver X receptors (LXRs) by oxysterols has been known to be an antiproliferative factor. Overexpression of SULT2B1b impairs LXR's response to oxysterols, by which it regulates lipid(More)
Experiments were performed to compare the regioselective hydroxylation of the isopropyl C-H bond at C-25 in 5alpha-cholestan-3beta-yl acetate by in situ generated dimethyldioxirane, methyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane, hexafluoro(dimethyl)dioxirane or ethyl(trifluoromethyl)dioxirane (ETDO). The dioxiranes were generated from the corresponding ketones and(More)
(22E)-3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-Tetrahydroxy-5beta-chol-22-en-24-oic acid and its N-acylamidated conjugates with glycine or taurine were synthesized from cholic acid. The key reactions employed are: 1) degradation of the side chain in intermediary C(24) 3alpha,6alpha,7alpha,12alpha-tetrahydroxylated bile acid to the corresponding C(22)(More)
BACKGROUND Safety of individual probiotic strains approved under Investigational New Drug (IND) policies in cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is not clear. AIM The primary aim of this phase I study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability of probiotic Lactobacillus GG (LGG) compared to placebo, while secondary ones were to explore its(More)
UNLABELLED Oxysterols are well known as physiological ligands of liver X receptors (LXRs). Oxysterols, 25-hydroxycholesterol (25HC) and 27-hydroxycholesterol as endogenous ligands of LXRs, suppress cell proliferation via LXRs signaling pathway. Recent reports have shown that sulfated oxysterol, 5-cholesten-3β-25-diol-3-sulfate (25HC3S) as LXRs antagonist,(More)
We developed a sensitive, reliable, and accurate LC/ESI-MS/MS method for measurement of 3β-sulfooxy-7β-N-acetylglucosaminyl-5-cholen-24-oic acid and its glycine and taurine amides in urine. This atypical C24 bile acid has been reported previously to be present in the urine of patients with Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) disease. In the method, targeted analytes(More)
Cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT2B1b) catalyzes oxysterol sulfation. 5-Cholesten-3β-25-diol-3-sulfate (25HC3S), one product of this reaction, decreases intracellular lipids in vitro by suppressing liver X receptor/sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)-1c signaling, with regulatory properties opposite to those of its precursor(More)